வியாழன், 25 ஜூன், 2015

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya

ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 25-06-2015

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya is a commentary on the Hindu epic Ramayana, birth of Veda Vyasa and Mahabharata by SriMadhvacharya, the founder of the Dvaita school of philosophy. Instead of viewing Mahabharata as a story work, Madhvacharya clearly gives it the status of Nirnayaka grantha. Sri Madhva also includes Ramayana in this work to show that Mahabharata is a complete work by the divine Sri Veda Vyasa. This work is an excellent exposition of the Mahabharata. It explains some finer aspects of the Mahabharata by supplementing it from other classical works such as HariVamsa, Vishnu Purana, Bhagavatha and others. Bheemasena is the clear hero of the Pandavas, in each and every incident this is underlined by giving lots of proof for each statement.
In the second chapter "vAkyoddhAraH" Acharya mentions his reasons for writing this work (From Reference 2). 2.3. In some places (of the Mahabharatha) verses have been interpolated and in others verses have been omitted in some places, the verses have been transposed and in others, different readings have been given out of ignorance or otherwise. 2.4. Though the works are really indestructible, they must be deemed to be mostly altered. Mostly all of them have disappeared and not even one crore (out of several crores of slokas) now exists. 2.5 - 2.7. When the original work itself is so altered, What is there to say of its meaning which is intelligible (even) to the Devas only with difficulty. When the work had thus become altered in the Kali age, under the direction of Hari for its clear understanding, I shall state the settled truths having known them through His grace, and also having well known the other (extinct) works and all the Vedas through His grace, and also having examined the various editions existing in several places. 2.8 - 2.9. Just as the all-powerful supreme Lord Vyasa who is no other than Narayana has narrated in the Bharatha and other works, I shall also, with the knowledge imparted by Him, briefly state the essential teachings of all the Sastras, in accordance with the interpretation of Bharatha. The Bharatha is stated to be the decisive authority on all the Sastras. 2.10. Formerly when all the Devas headed by Brahma and others and the Rishis had assembled once under the very direction of Vyasa, Bharatha was weighed as against the Vedas and all other Sastras by placing them upon the two scales of a balance, when Bharatha excelled (in weight). 2.11. This work is called MahaBharatha on account of its greatest weight and highest quality. He who thus understands its mere definition is released from all sin. Note—Two objects of equal weight representing the presiding deity of each were weighed. 2.12 - 2.14. The truth of all the Sastras is indeed established in Bharatha by illustrations. The dependence of Brahma and others upon Vishnu is also brought out inasmuch as Bheema and others are clearly stated to be under the control of Krishna. It is also emphasized (therein) that Vishnu is the giver of knowledge and fame to all, inasmuch as He, in the form of Vyasa, promulgated their fame in Bharatha and imparted knowledge to Brahma, Rudra, and others who had incarnated as Suka and others.
Sri MadhvaAcharya has quoted from the various Puranas, Vedas, Mahabharata, BhagvadGita and various other shastras and has presented a clear and complete picture of all the shastras. Other schools of thought dismiss and omit scriptures that don't "pertain" to their preconceived notions. In this context, Sri Madhva has clearly shown how the conflicts are resolved and brought out the true meaning in each instance (like fire is hidden in Arani sticks).
  • Other schools of thought dismiss certain Puranas as being composed by each sect supporting their own Gods. Sri Madhva has quoted from all Puranas and still showing that Sri Hari is supreme. In fact in TantraSara he shows that each alphabet corresponds to Sri Hari.
Sri Madhva has provided clear explanations to many apparently conflicting ideas presented in the Mahabharata.
The Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya has 32 chapters.The essence of this work of 32 chapters has been captured in a work called Bhava Sangraha by Sri Raghavendra Swamy. while the first Nine chapters deal with Ramayana tatprya Nirnaya, the 10th chapter describes the birth Shri Veda Vaysa. Rest deal with Mahabharath. In the Bhava Sangraha, there are therefore 32 slokas followed by a concluding sloka.

Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya
Mahabharata has always inspired me in innumerable ways. From what I can remember the first story I have heard or which has made an important impact on me has beenBheema – Bhakasura Story told by my dad.
My Uncle Lakshmipathi Jois got me the first complete Mahabharata for kid’s book when I was about 10 yrs old. Starting from that book I have read many books and articles relating to Mahabharata. The most interesting aspect of this has always been that every time I read anything about Mahabharata I learn something new. That is the beauty of the great epic. Over the years after having read so many articles and books I am convinced that SrimanMadhwacharya has given the most comprehensive explanation of Mahabharata in his Crown work Mahabharata TatparyaNirnaya (MBTN). I firmly believe that reading and understanding MBTN is equal to reading the great epic itself, with an added advantage of understanding the gist all Vedas, Upanishads, Harivamsha,SarvaShastras and Ramayana during the course of reading Mahabharata and also understanding the relation among them. MBTN is really an encyclopedia of Mahabharata. Going further I feel MBTN is a Mahabharata centric encyclopedia of all the Shastrasof Hindu Dharma. Stepping aside I could say it is one stop work that could answer questions about All Shastras. Madhwacharya has answered any questions or doubts orcontradictions that has arose or could arise in the minds of Mahabharata readers in his this work Mahabharata TatparyaNirnaya.
 Having said thus and Saluting to Harivayugalu and my Adyatmika Guru Dr. Vyasanakere Prabhanjanacharya I start my journey in quest of MahabharataTatparyaNirnaya
-Harshala Rajesh
naahaM karta hariH karta

List of works by Madhvacharya

The extant works of the Dvaita founder-philosopher, Sri Madhvacharya, called the Sarvamūla Granthas, are many in number. The works span a wide spectrum of topics concerning Dvaita philosophy in specific and Vedic thought in general. They are commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavadgita, Brahma Sutras and other works. The list of works are enumerated below.

Commentaries on the Bhagavadgita

  • भगवद्गीताभाष्यम् (Bhagavadgītābhashyam)
This work focusses on explaining the meaning of Gita. This is said to be the first work of Sri Madhvacharya, and at a very young age. Like all his other works, there is extremely brevity of expression, profusion of quotations from other authoritative sources (the exception being Brahmatarka, which is quoted in most other works), and is very definitive.
  • भगवद्गीतातात्पर्यनिर्णयः (Bhagavadgitatatparyanirnaya)
This work compliments the Bhashya in two ways - it gives some alternate meanings to Gita (perhaps an indication to the truth in the quotation given in the Bhashya that Gita has at least 10 meanings) and reviews and criticizes some other commentaries on Gita, notably the advaita commentary on Gita.

Commentaries on the Brahmasutras

  • ब्रह्मसूत्रभाष्यम् (Brahmasutra Bhashya)
This is a commentary on the Brahmasutras and covering every suutra. According to the Dvaita sampradaya, there are 564 sutras. More details can be seen from.
This has multiple commentaries, including some of the earliest disciples of Sri Madhvacharya --
Sri Madhvacharya's treatment of Brahmasutras has many unique points:
Brahmasutras are considered decisive [निर्णायक] of purport of the entire scriptures. This is unlike other traditions which consider the suutras as just an aid or a part of the process to arrive at the purport. And for this reason, Brahmasutras are part of paravidyA in dvaita, while it is not in other sampradAyAs.
Brahmasuutras are recited with an 'OM' at the beginning and the end.
Brahmasuutras' range of coverage is the entire shabdashAstra, not just that Upanishads.
According to Advaita, one of the prerequisites to studying Brahmasutras or doing brahmajijnAsa (i.e. an enquiry into nature of Brahman) requires a thorough understanding of the karmamiimaasma. According to Vishishtaadvaita, Brahmasutras comprise one unit of shaastra, along with karmamiimaamsa and daivii miimaamsaa. According to Dvaita, Brahmasuutras are a unit in themselves, and having devotion to Vishnu and detachment in regular materialism etc., form the minimum prerequisite. There is no stress on understanding of karmakANDa.
  • अनुव्याख्यानम् (Anu Vyakhyana)
  • न्यायविवरणम् (Nyaya Vivarana)
  • अणुभाष्यम् (Anu Bhashya)

Commentaries on the Upanishads

  • ईशावास्योपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Ishavasya Upanishad Bhashya)
  • केनोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Kena Upanishad Bhashya)
  • कठोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Katha Upanishad Bhashya)
  • मुण्डकोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Mundaka Upanishad Bhashya)
  • षट्प्रश्नोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Satprashna Upanishad Bhashya)
  • माण्डूक्योपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Mandukya Upanishad Bhashya)
  • ऐतरेयोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Aitareya Upanishad Bhashya)
  • तैत्तिरीयोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Taittireeya Upanishad Bhashya)
  • बृहदारण्यकोपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Bhashya)
  • छान्दोग्योपनिषद्भाष्यम् (Chandogya Upanishad Bhashya)

Work on Veda

  • ऋग्भाष्यम् (Rigbhashyam)


These are short works, each of which has a very specific focus.
  • प्रमाणलक्षणम् (Pramānalaksanam)
  • कथालक्षणम् (Katha Lakshana)
  • उपाधिखण्डनम् (Upadhi Khandana)
  • प्रपञ्चमिथ्यात्वानुमानखण्डनम् (Prapancha Mithyatva-anumana Khandana)
  • मायावादखण्डनम् (Mayavada Khandana)
  • तत्त्वसङ्ख्यानम् (Tattva Samkhyana)
  • तत्त्वविवेकः (Tattva Viveka)
  • तत्त्वोद्योतः (Tattvoddyota)
  • विष्णुतत्त्वविनिर्णयः (Vishnu Tattva Vinirnaya)
  • कर्मनिर्णयः (Karma Nirnaya)

Works on Mahabharata

  • महाभारततात्पर्यनिर्णयःMahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya 
  • भारतनिर्णयः or यमकभारतम् (Yamaka Bharata)

Work on Puranas

  • भागवततात्पर्यनिर्णयः (Bhagavata Tatparya Nirnaya)


  • नरसिंहनखस्तुतिः (Narasimha Naka Stuti)
  • द्वादशस्तोत्रम् (Dvadasha stotra)

Works on Acharya

  • कृष्णामृतमहार्णवः (Krishnamruta Maharnava
  • सदाचारस्मृतिः (Sadachara Smruti)
  • तन्त्रसारसङ्ग्रहः (Tantra Sara Sangraha)
  • यतिप्रणवकल्पः (Yati Pranava Kalpa)
  • जयन्तीनिर्णयः (Jayanti Nirnaya)

Other works

  • कन्दुकस्तुतिः (Kanduka Stuti)
  • न्यासपद्धतिः (Nyasapaddhati)
  • तिथिनिर्णयः (Tithinirnaya)

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