ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 26-06-2015
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya –
Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Sri Madhvacharya considers Itihasa-Purana Prasthana also as a source of Vedanta Philosophy along with Upanishad Brahmasutra and Gita Prasthanas. He gives utmost importance to Mahabharata as a source of Vedanta Philosophy and Vaishnava religion. This work helps the understanding of Vedanta Philosophy in two ways: 1) It contains all essential teachings of Vedanta Philosophy. 2) It helps to understand the purport of Veda and Upanishads. It is well-said that itihAsapurANAbhyAM vedaM samupabR^iMhayet.h. While Vedas and Upanishads teach the theory of Vedanta, the Mahabharata teaches the practice through appropriate illustrations. Therefore, Sri Madhvacharya attaches great importance to Mahabharata. For the utilization of Mahabharata, both as a source and as an aid to the exposition of Vedanta Philosophy, two undertakings were necessary: 1) To fix an authentic Text of Mahabharata. 2) To unearth the in-depth meaning of it going beyond the mere story, episodes, events, and the personalities. That is to say, to identify the moral and spiritual issues behind the story, episodes, etc. It is this that is achieved in this work viz., Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya. The work is neatly planned. It contains thirty-two chapters and has 5202 verses. The first chapter, designated as sarvashastrArthanirNaya, contains the central teaching of Vedanta philosophy viz., vishhNusarvottamatva. The second, designated as suvAkyoddhAra, affirms the same. The third explains the creation outside and within the Brahmanda. It mentions the ten avataras of the Supreme God upto Sri Rama's avatara. Chapters 4 to 9 contain the entire summary of Sri Rama's avatara karya. The tenth chapter describes Vedavyasa avatara. The rest of twenty-two chapters give a gist of the entire Mahabharata. Some events and points of Harivamsha and Bhagavata are also included in these. Thus, Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya is an exposition of Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata, and Harivamsha. As stated earlier, it is an exposition of the entire Veda and Vedanta teachings. This work is not merely a gist of the above works but an evaluation of the moral and spiritual issues involved. Sri Madhvacharya, at the close of this work, records that he composed it under the instructions of Lord Narayana Himself. nArAyaNenAbhihito badaryAM tasyaiva shishhyo jagadekabhartuH (MBTN 32-157) Sri Narayana Panditacharya declares in Madhva Vijaya that this work is a good guide to all Godloving persons.
itihAsapurANAbdheH bhavachchittAdriloDitAt.h | j~nAtAM bhAratatAtparyasudhAM kaH san.h na sevate || 15-76|| The benedictory verse of Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya viz., nArAyaNAya paripUrNaguNarNavAya, etc., gives the definition of the Supreme God Narayana given in the first and second sutras of Brahmasutras viz., guNapUrNatva and sR^ishhTyAdyashhTakartR^itva respectively. The first chapter, which is designated as Shastra Tatparya Adhyaya, contains the essence of the teachings of Vedanta Philosophy viz., Supremacy of God Narayana. At the outset, the purpose of the creation and the process of the creation are explained. The creation is a kind of sport for the Supreme God. However, it serves the purpose of providing an opportunity for the jivas to have the full expression of their original nature by undertaking appropriate means. It also provides an opportunity for Goddess Lakshmi to assume her different forms. so.ayaM vihAra iha me tanubhR^itsvabhAva sambhUtaye bhavati bhUtikR^ideva bhUtyAH || (MBTN I-5) The God desires that those who are devoted to Him should attain the prosperity of liberation, and to enable them to achieve this end, he undertakes creation. bhUtyai nijAshrita janasya hi sR^ijyasR^ishhTau IxA babhUva | (MBTN I-3) First, he himself assumes the forms of Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha and makes Goddess Lakshmi assume the forms of Maya, Jaya, Krti, and Shanti. He creates by His Pradyumna form, protects by His Aniruddha form, destroys by His Sankarshana form, and liberates by His Vasudeva form. Apart from these five forms (these and Narayana), He also assumes Keshava, etc. (twelve forms); Matsya, etc. (ten forms);Narayana, etc. (hundred forms); Vishva, etc. (thousand forms);Para, etc. (many forms), and Aja, etc. (infinite forms). He is only one though He assumes several forms. All his forms are Purna, i.e., full. He is impartite; there are no internal parts of Him. He has no Prakrta Sharira. He is absolutely free from any drawback. His body is that of bliss. He is Supreme and independent. He has no limitation of time and space. He has no growth of decay. None is equal or superior to Him. He is supreme. The Supreme God is introduced by such glowing tributes by Sri Madhvacharya at the very commencement of this work. This tempo is maintained not only all along this work, but in all his other works. Sri Madhvacharya declares that this supremacy of Lord Narayana is proclaimed in all the Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Pancharatna, and all other works that followed the tradition of these. He also states that this purport of the scripture is determined by the Brahmasutras. He quotes
from Veda, Upanishads, rahmasutras, Gita, Mahabharata, and Bhagavata a good many passages to substantiate the above features of the Supreme God. We will notice only a few of them here: 1. nAsti nArAyaNasamaM na bhUto na bhavishhyati | etena satyavAkyena sarvArthAn.h sAdhayAmyaham.h || (Mbh I-1-18) 2. yasmAt.h xaramatIto.ahamaxarAdapi chottamaH | ato.asmi loke vede cha prathitaH purushhottamaH || (B.G.XV-18) 3. paro mAtrayA tanvA vR^idhAna | nate mahitvamashnuvanti | (R.V.) 4. neha nAnAsti kiJNchana | (Katha. III-4) 5. pR^ithagupadeshAt.h (B.S.I-3-28) These quotations are incorporated in the very verses of Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya. He is very emphatic that only such scriptures that declare the supremacy of Vishnu are authentic, and others are not authoritative. Such works that declare Shiva, etc. other than Vishnu as superior are intended to mislead the undeserving. mohArthAnyanyashAstrANi kR^itAnyevAj-nayA hareH | When the God assumes avataras in the mortal world, certain human drawbacks are displayed by Him. He pretends ignorance, he appears as having a human body, he appears to suffer from injuries and death, and he pretends to be in grief and without any self-control. All these are intended only to mislead the undeserving. There cannot be any drawbacks for Him who is supreme. The Brahmasutras give us the correct knowledge of Brahman, i.e., Vishnu. These declare that He is the same in all His forms, that is to say, He is guNapUrNa and nirdoshha in all His forms. Sri Madhvacharya particularly points out that the Vedas declare the supremacy of Vishnu. He quotes a number of hymns of the Rg Veda and declares the supremacy of Vishnu. We will notice a few here. 1. asya devasya mILhushho vishhNoretasya prabhR^ithe havirbhiH | (R.V. VII-40-5) 2. stuhi shrutaM gartamadaM puvAnam.h | (R.V. II-33-11) 3. pradhAnvasya mahato mahAni satyAsatyasya karaNAni vocham.h | (R.V. II-15)
4. satyaH so.asya mahimA gR^iNe shavo yaj-neshhu viprarAjye | >From this, it is clear that those who hold the view that Vishnu is only a Puranic deity and not a Vedic deity are ignorant of the Vedas. In order to bring home the supremacy of Lord Vishnu, Sri Madhvacharya mentions the fact that all others, i.e. all jivas right from Vayu, are pratibimbas of Vishnu, and they are in a hierarchical order. AbhAsako.asya pavanaH pavanasya rudraH sheshhAtmako pavana eva cha shakrakAmau | Vayu is the pratibimba of the Supreme God. Rudra and Garuda are the pratibimbas of Vayu, and Indra and Kama are the pratibimbas of Garuda and Rudra. In this way, the line goes on upto R^ishhi, gandharva, etc. This is the line of purushas. The line of women commences with ramA and moves in the order viz., Sarasvati Bharati, Parvati, Suparni, and so on. The jivas are divided into three types viz., muktiyogya, nityasamsArin.h, and tamoyogya. Under each category, there are innumerable jivas. tasmAt.h samAptimapi yAnti na jIvasaN^ghAH | Anantyameva gaNasho.asti yato hi teshhAm.h || These jivas are distinct from the God. These are also mutually distinct. Both the God and jivas are distinct from the jadas. The jadas are also mutually distinct. Thus there are five principal categories of bheda- jIveshayorbhidA chaiva jIvabhedaH parasparam.h | jaDeshayorjaDANAM cha jaDajIvabhidA tathA || paJNcha bhedA ime nityA sarvAvasthAmu sarvashaH | muktAnAM cha na hIyante tAratamyaM cha sarvadA || (MBTN I-70,71) The jiva attains liberation only by the grace of the God. yamevaishha vR^iNute tena labhyaH... (MBTN I-77) The grace fo the God is to be obtained by knowledge and devotion. The knowledge should contain the following ingredients: 1. sarveshhAM cha harirnityaM niyantA tadvashAH pare (MBTN I-79) God is the regulator of all, and all are entirely dependent upon Him.
2. tAratamyaM tato j~neyaM sarveshitvaM harestathA | (MBTN I-80) The God is supreme, and all others are inferior to Him in a hierarchical order. 3. paJNchabhedAmshcha vij~nAya vishhNoH svAbhedhameva cha | (MBTN I-81) The five types of differences and the fact that there are no internal differences within the God should be known. 4. avatArAn.h harerj~nAtvA nAvatArA hareshcha ye | (MBTN I-82) One should know which are the avataras of the God and which are merely aveshas. 5. sR^ishhTiraxA.ahR^itij~nAnaniyatyaj~nAnabandhanAn.h | moxaM cha vishhNutastveva j~nAtvA muktirna chAnyathA || (MBTN I-82) One can attain liberation by knowing the sR^ishhTyAdyashhTakartR^itva of the God. These are creation, protection, destruction, giving knowledge,regulation, causing ignorance, causing bondange, and bestowing liberation. 6. vedAshcha paJNcharAtrANi setihAsapurANakAn.h | j~nAtvA vishhNuparAneva muchyate nAnyathA kvachit.h || (MBTN I-84) One can attain liberation by knowing that Veda Pancharatra, Itihasa Purana, etc., the sacred literature, declares the supremacy of Lord Vishnu. This enumeration of the ingredients of knowledge covers four important aspects: 1. vishhNusarvottamatva 2. jIvapAratantrya, jIvatAratamya 3. paJNchabheda 4. sarvavedapratipAdyatva This is exactly shAstratAtparyanirNaya, the theme of the first adhyaya. Now, the above knowledge has to be accompanied by bhakti. The well-known definition of bhakti is given here: mAhAtmyaj~nAnapUrvastu sudR^iDhaH sarvato.adhikaH | sneho bhaktiriti proktastayA suktirna chAnyathA || (MBTN I-85) The highest love of God that is accompanied by the knowledge of His supremacy is bhakti.
With the bhakti based on the firm knowledge of the glory of the God, one has to undertake upasana. Chaturmukhabrahma is eligible to meditate upon Lord Vishnu with all His attributes. The average muktiyogya men are eligible to meditate with only four attributes viz., sat, chit, Ananda, and Atma. This goes on, increasing according to each one's inner capacity and the position in the hierarchy. While satvika jivas develop jnana and bhakti, the tamasa jivas develop dvesha, i.e. hatred for the God. anAdidveshhiNo daityAH | The dvesha is expressed throught he following perverted knowledge: jIvAbhedo nirguNatvaM apUrNaguNatA tathA | sAmyAdhikye tadanyeshhAM bhedastadgata eva cha || prAdurbhAvaviparyAsaH tadbhaktadveshha eva cha | tatpramANasya nindA cha dveshhA ete.akhilA matAH || (MBTN I-111,112) The thought that the God and the jivas are identical, the God is without any attributes, He has only a limited number of attributes, some other gods are equal or even superior to Him, the God has internal differences (between His mularupa and avatara rupa and between His avayavas), His gunas are different from Him, His avataras have certain drawbacks, and such other thoughts are the forms of hatred of the God. The bhakti practiced by the muktiyogyas should be free from this perverted knowledge (dvesha). Such pure bhakti will lead to aparokshajnana and prasada of the Supreme God. The Supreme God will bestow the liberation. Mukhyaprana will remove the subtle body. vishhNurhi dAtA moxasya vAyushcha tadanuj~nayA | (MBTN I-78) Chaturmukhabrahma is the chief guru for all. A guru is one who possesses thirty-two features of a guru, who has no doubt in respect of right knowledge and who can remove the doubts of disciples. shhaNNavatyaN^gulo yastu nyagrodhaparimaNDalaH | saptapAdaH chaturhasto dvAtrimshairlaxaNairyutaH || asaMshayaH saMshayachchhid.h gururukto mavIshhibhiH | tasmAd.h brahmA gururmukhyaH sarveshhAmeva sarvadA || (MBTN I-121-122) The thirty-two features are described as under: paJNchadIrghaH paNchasUxmaH paJNcharaktaH paDunnataH | tripR^ithustrishhu gambhIro dvAtrimshallaxaNastviti || The knowledge imparted by the guru possessing these features is true knowledge.
samyag.hlaxaNasampanno yaddadyAt.h suprasannadhIH | shishhyAya satyaM bhavati tatsarvaM nAtra samshayaH || ( MBTN I-124) As stated above, Chaturmukhabrahma is the chief guru for all. However, other superior persons are also gurus in the respective order as per the features of a guru possessed by them. Sometimes, even lesser persons also may have to be taken as guru. They should also be duly respected. anye.api svAtmano mukhyAH kramAd.h gurava IritAH || kramAllaxaNahInAshcha laxaNAlaxaNaiH samAH |(MBTN I-123) svAvarANAM gurutvaM tu bhavet.h kAraNataH kvachit.h | maryAdArthaM te.api pUjyA na tu yadvat.h paro guruH || (MBTN I-126) A muktiyogya jiva will get rid of all his sins as soon as he has aparokshajnana of the Supreme God. The muktiyogya jivas journeying through the ArchirAdi path go to Chaturmukhabrahma and then reach Lord Hari. The above tenets (including the ones given in previous postings) constitute the purport of the entire sacred scripture. Sri Madhvacharya informs that he has culled out these in the ShastratAtparya Chapter of this work under the instructions of Lord Hari Himself and closes this chapter: iti R^ig.hyajuHsAmAtharvapaJNcharAtretihAsataH | purANebhyastathA.anyebhyaH shAstrebhyo nirNayaH kR^itaH || 1\.135|| vishhNvAj~nayaiva vidushhA tatprasAdabalonnateH | AnandatIrthamuninA pUrNapraj~nAbhidhAyujA || 1\.136|| tAtparyaM shAstrANAM sarveshhAM uttamaM mayA proktam.h | prApyAnuj~nAM vishhNoretajj~nAtvaiva vishhNurApyo.asau || 1\.137|| [sarvashAstratAtparyanirNayo nAma prathamo.adhyAyaH]
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Chapter-II In the second chapter, designated as suvAkyoddhAra, the purport of the sacred scripture delineated in the first chapter is demonstrated by the verses in the Mahabharata: uktaH pUrvAdhyAye shAstrANAM nirNayaH paro divyaH | atha khalu bhAratavAkyAnyetairevAdhyavasyante || [MBTN II.2] Before this task is executed, two points have to be clarified: 1) Whether the text of the Mahabharata that is handed down is authentic. 2) What the grounds to select the Mahabharata especially for this purpose are. Sri Madhvacharya concedes that attempts are made to contaminate and mutilate the text of the Mahabharata. This has happened not only in the case of the Mahabharata, but in several other texts also. Therefore, he assures that he has collected the manuscripts of the Mahabharata from different parts of the country and has ascertained the authentic version of it. In doing so, he has not merely relied on manuscripts as the modern scholars do but also taken into consideration the entire tradition of the scriptural literature. The latter criteria is very important. Every text is a part of a tradition. Therefore, anything that is contrary to or contradicts the text is not likely to be the authentic portion of that text. Internal contradiciton within the text or contradiction with the tradition is likely to be the result of the interpolation or mutilation. In modern textual criticism, this vital point is ignored. The second criteria is stated by Sri Madhvacharya as: shAstrAntarANi saJNjAnan.h vedAmshchAsya prasAdataH This is how the contamination and the mutilation of the texts and his efforts to ascertain the authentic text of the Mahabharata is regarded. His observations set very scientific guidelines of textual criticism.
a. kvachidganthAn.h praxipanti kvachidantaritAnapi | kuryuH kvachichcha vyatyAsaM pramAdAt.h kvachidanyathA || anutsannA api granthAH vyAkulA iti sarvashaH | utsannAH prAyashaH sarve koTyaMsho.api na vartate || grantho.apyevaM vilulitaH kimvartho devadurgamaH | (MBTN II-3,4,5)
b. deshe deshe tathA granthAn.h dR^ishhTvA chaiva pR^ithagvidhAn.h | yathA cha bhagavAn.h vyAsaH sAxAnnArAyaNaH prabhuH || jagAda bhAratAdyeshhu tathA vaxye tadIxayA | saN^xepAt.h sarvashAstrAryaM bhAratAryAnusArataH || (MBTN II-7,8)
After assuring that, the purport of the Mahabharata will be explained by a reference to the authentic text ascertaining it as stated above. Sri Madhvacharya states the special grounds because of which this work is especially selected for shAstratAtparyanirNaya | The treatment of this topic is quite elaborate in this chapter. We mention the most striking grounds, which will be stated in the postings that follow 1) The most important ground is that the Mahabharata declares the supremacy of Narayana emphatically, unconditionally, and as the total purport of the entire scripture. vAsudevastu bhagavAn.h kIrtyate.atra sanAtanaH | pratibimbamivAdarshe yaM pashyantyAtmani sthitam.h || (II-68) nAsti nArAyaNasamaM na bhUtaM na bhavishhyati | etena satyavAkyena sarvArthAn.h sAdhayAmyaham.h || (II-68,69) AloDya sarvashAstrANi vichArya cha punaH punaH | idamekaM sunisshhpannaM dhyeyo nArAyaNaH sadA || (II-72) vAsudevasya mahimA bhArate nirNayoditaH | tadarthAstu kathAH sarvAH nAnyArthaM vaishhNavaM vachaH || (II-123) 2) The second important ground is that the Mahabharata declares the importance of Vayu. It clearly states that Vayu played the role of the chief assistant of Lord Narayana in His three incarnations of Rama, Krishna, and Vedavyasa, assuming the incarnation of Hanuman, Bhima, and Madhva. The fact that Bhimasena plays a major role in the Mahabharata is fully brought out: a. tasmAd.h balapravR^ittasya rAmakR^ishhNAtmano hareH | antaraN^ga hanUmAmshcha bhImastatkAryamAdhakau || (II-34,35) b. priyashcha vishhNoH sarvebhyaH iti bhImanidarshanAt.h | bhUbhAraharaNe vishhNoH pradhAnAN^gaM hi mArutiH || mAgadhAdivadhAdeva duryodhanavadhAdapi || yo ya eva balajyeshhTaH xatriyeshhu ma uttamaH | aN^gaM ched.h vishhNukaAryepu tadbhaktyaiva na chAnyathA || (II-15,16,17) c. tasyAN^gaM prathamaM vAyuH prAdurbhAvatrayAnvitaH | prathamo hanumannAma dvitIyo bhIma eva cha || pUrNapraj~nastR^itIyastu bhagavatkAryasAdhakaH | (II-128,129) d. j~nAne virAge haribhaktibhAve dhR^itisthitiprANabaleshhu yoge | budhhau cha nAnyo hanumatsamAnaH pumAn.h kadAchit.h kka cha kashchanaiva || (II-155)
e. vAyurbhImo bhImanAdo mahaujAH sarveshhAM cha prANinAM prANabhUtaH | AnAvR^ittirdehinAM dehapAte tasmAd.h vAyuH devadevo vishishhTaH || (II-163) f. tattvaj~nAne vishhNubhakto dhairye sthairye parAkrame | vege cha lAghave chaiva pralApasya cha varjane | bhImasenasamo nAsti senayorubhayorapi || (II-164,165) g. asmin.h yuddhe bhImasena tvayi bhAraH samAhitaH | dhUrarjunena voDhavya itaro janaH | (II-174) In verses II-156-160, mantras from baLitthAsUkta that highlight the glory of Mukhyaprana in his three incarnations are quoted. Several events in Mahabharata clearly show that Bhimasena plays the most important role in Mahabharata guided by Lord Sri Krishna. The killing of Jarasandha and Duryodhana are two major instances. The purpose of God's incarnation is to remove the burden of the evil persons on the earth. In achieving this purpose, Maruti, i.e. Mukhyaprana, plays an important role as Bhimasena. The depiction oft his has made the Mahabharata a great epic. 3) The third important ground is that the Mahabharata narrates the glory of Sri Rama also: uktA rAmakathA hyasmin.h mArkANDeyasamAkhyayA | tasmAd.h yad.h bhAratenoktaM taddhi naivAsti kutrachit.h || The story of Sri Rama narrated here is culled out from the Mularamayana. Sri Madhvacharya has elaborated it in this Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya bringing out the ethical and philosophical implications of various events of the Ramayana. It is further elaborated by Sri Narayana Panditacharya in the Sanraha Ramayana. Thus, the Mahabharata is an epic that contains the glory of the two incarnations of the Supreme God viz., Sri Rama and Sri Krishna. Its greatness is enhanced by the further fact that it is composed by Sri Vedavyasa who himself is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. kR^ishhNadvaipAyanaM vyAsaM viddhi nArAyaNaM prabhum.h | kohyanyaH puNDarIkAxAt.h mahAbhAratakR^idbhavet.h || 4) Another important feature of the Mahabharata is that it is in three languages viz., darshana, guhya, and samAdhi | bhAshhAstu trividhAstatra mayA vai sampradarshitAH | ukto yo mahimA vishhNoH sa tUkto hi samAdhinA || II-114 samAdhibhAshhayoktaM yattatsarvaM grAhyameva hi | II-115
aviruddhaM samAdhestu darshanoktaM chan gR^ihyate | AdyantayorviruddhaM yaddharshanaM tadudAhR^itam.h || II-116 darshanAntarasiddhaM cha guhyabhAshhAnyathA bhavet.h | tasmAd.h vishhNorhi mahimA bhAratokto yathArthataH || (II-128) a) The glory fo the Supreme God is conveyed by samadhi bhasha. This naturally has to be accepted as it is. b) Darshana bhasha is of two types: i) Whatever conflicts with what is stated before and after that is darshana bhasha. This naturally has to be interpreted in tune with what is stated before and after or else it has to be rejected. ii) Whatever is merely a restatement of some other darshana quoted for refutatino or to show the hollowness of it. c) Guhyabhasha is that which is different from samadhi and darshana bhasha. In the case of the Guhyabhasha, its deeper meaning has to be taken, rejecting the apparent meaning. 5) One more important feature of the Mahabharata is that it has three layers of meaning viz., manvAdi, AstikAdi, and uparicharAdi | manvAdi kechid.h bruvate hyAstikAdi tathApare | tathoparicharAdanye bhArataM parichaxate || (II-142) a. sakR^ishhNAn.h pANDavAn.h gR^ihya yo.ayamarthaH pravartate | prAtilomyAdi vaichitryAt.h tamAstIkaM prachaxate || b. dharmo bhaktyAdidashakaH shrutAdiH shIlavainayau | sabrahmakAstu te yatra manvAdiM te vidurbudhAH | c. nArAyaNasya nAmAni sarvANi vachanAni tu | tatsAmarthyAbhidhAyIni tamauparicharaM viduH || (II-142,145) The story of the Mahabharata, centering around the personalities of Sri Krishna, the Pandavas, etc., is the Astikadi layer of the meaning. This layer is designated as Astika because the Pandavas whose story is narrated have been great Astiks, that is to say, they had great faith in Sri Krishna. The Manvadi layer of the meaning is that meaning which conveys the virtues represented by Yuddhishtira, Bhima, etc. Yuddhishtira represents dharma, Bhimasena represents bhakti, jnana, prajna, medha, etc. The ten virtues are as follows: bhaktirj~nAnaM savairAgyaM praj~nA bhedhA dhR^itiH sthitiH | yogaH prANo balaM chaiva vR^ikodara iti smR^itaH || (II-146)
Arjuna represents shravaNa, manana, and nididhyAsana. Nakula and sahadeva represent shIla and vinaya. Draupadi represents the Vedas. These virtues of these personalities are demonstrated in the events connected with them in the story of the Mahabharata. This layer of meaning is the manvAdi meaning.The expression manvAdi refers to dharma and other virtues listed here: mIyate pramIyate ebhiH paramAtmA iti manavo dharmaH bhaktyAdidashakaM shrutAdiH shIlavainayA vedAshcheti manupadavAchyaM paJNchakam.h | The third layer of meaning viz., auparichara is the meaning that brings out Narayana as the meaning of each and every word of the Mahabharata. nArAyaNasya nAmAni sarvANi vachanAni tu | tatsAmarthyAbhidhAyIni tamauparicharaM viduH || The expression uparichara (II-145) itself refers to Narayana and brings out his sarvottamatva | upari - sarveshhAmupari charatIti uparicharaH sarvottamo nArAyaNaH | tasyaiva svaravarNapadavAkyAtmakasakalabhAratagranthena paramamukhyayA vR^ittyA pratipAdanamuchitam.h | >From the above explanation of the three layers of meaning and the terms referring to these three layers viz., AstikAdi, manvAdi, and uparichara, it is clear that these expressions do not refer to the three beginnings of the Mahabharata as contended by some modern Indologists. These do not refer to the episodes of Astika, Manu, and Uparichara as contended by them. This is made emphatically clear by Sri Vadiraja long before the Indologists thought of a reference to these episodes: manvAdi kechit.h bruvate iti shlokasya ApAtataH pratIyamAnA manavaH AstikAkhyo xashhiH uparicharAkhyo vasuH nArthaH | manUnAM prasaN^gasyaiva bhArate abhAvAt.h | Astikoparicharava svoshcha sarpayAgavighnakaraNAya satyavatyutpattaye cha AdiparvaNi AdibhAge ekaukAdhyAyamAtreNa prasaJNjanepi AdiparvaNi ante prasaJNjanAbhAvena sakalabhAratapratipAdyatvasya sutarAmayogAt.h | The three layers of meaning as explained above are much richer than a mere reference to certain episodes. These bring out the very indepth meaning of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya -
Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
The theme of the third chapter is to describe sarga and anusarga and also to give the background of the characters of the Ramayana as a preliminary to the narration of Sri Rama's story in the next six chapters. This chapter begins with three beautiful benedictory verses praising the three incarnations of the Supreme God viz., vedavyAsa, rAma, and kR^ishNa. Then, the benedictory verse of the Mahabharata viz., nArAyaNaM namaskR^tya naraM chaiva narottamam.h | devIM sarasvatIM vAchaM tato jayasudIrayet.h || is quoted, and its significance is explained. In this verse, Narayana refers to both Narayana and Vedavyasa, Devi refers to Goddess Laxmi, Narottama refers to Vayu who is Jivottama, Nara refers to Shesha, and Sarasvati, of course, refers to the goddess of speech. Jaya is the name of this great epic. jayo nAmetihAso.ayaM kR^ishhNadvaipAyaneritaH | vAyurnarottamo nAma devIti shrIrudIritA || nArAyaNo vyAsa iti vAchyavaktrasvarUpataH | ekaH sa bhagavAnuktaH sAdhakesho narottamaH || upasAdhako narashchokto devI bhAgyAtmikA nR^iNAm.h | sarasvatI vAkyarUpA tasmAnnamyA hi te.akhilAH || (III-5,7) Then commences the explanation of sarga, i.e., creation. Lord Narayana and Goddess Ramaa create Virincha assuming the forms of Vasudeva and Maya, create Vayu assuming the forms of Sankarshana and Jaya, and create Pradhana (Sarasvati) and Shraddha (Bharati) assuming the forms of Pradyumna and Krti. Virincha and Vayu are also known as Purusha. Vayu and Bharati beget Shesha and Suparna, who serve as the bed and vehicle of the Supreme God. Shesha begets servants of the Supreme God called Kala, while Garuda begets Jaya, Vijaya, etc., also servants of the Supreme God. Vayu begets Vishvaxena. This is the first stage of the process of the creation of Virincha, Vayu, etc. Now these have to be provided with sthula sharira. This is initiated by Aniruddha and Shanti. They beget Virincha and Sarasvati with the body of Mahatatva. Virincha and Sarasvati beget Shiva and Parvati. These two beget the manas and the abhimani deities of the ten senses with Vaikarika Ahankara, the ten senses with Taijasa Ahankara, Akasha, etc., and the five bhutas with Tamasa ahankara. Shiva also begets all other deities. Vayu and Bharati beget Shesha, Shiva, and Indra. Indra begets all other deities and the deities connected with the sacrifice. It has to be noted here that these deities are stated to have been both by Virincha and Sarasvati and by Vayu and Bharati.
Lord Narayana also assumes the three forms of Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. He assumes these forms through His Vasudeva from and Goddess Laxmi's Maya form. Among these three forms, Vishnu's form is the direct form, while in Brahma and Shiva, He is present as Antaryamin. The creation mentioned in the previous posting is termed a Tatvasrshti and takes place outside Brahmanda. The creation within the Brahmanda is known as Padmasrshti. The Tatvabhimani deities who were created outside the Brahmanda (Tatvasrshti) appeal to the Supreme God to create Brahmanda. The Supreme God conjoins with Goddess Laxmi. She delivers the golden Brahmanda. Lord Hari and all other deities enter into it. A lotus arises from the navel of Lord Hari. From this, Chaturmukhabrahma is born again. From him, all other deities will be born again. Then Chaturmukhabrahma creates the fourteen worlds and the abhimani deiites of senses, etc. Then, Sanaka, Sanandana, etc.; sages, Marichi, etc.; Vayu putras, asuras, manushyas, cows, elephants, horses, serpents, etc., and other varied beings are born. All of these do not realize their true nature and go on rotating in transmigration. Then, Pralaya takes place. The Srshti and Pralaya are endless. The jivas, prakrti, and kala are eternal. Then what can be said of the Supreme God, who is the God of the gods? After describing Srshti and Pralaya, the various avataras assumed by Lord Narayana are described. The ten avataras of the God viz., Matsya, Kurma, etc., are well known. However, some special points stated in Tatparyanirnaya need our special attention. Here, two Varaha avataras are mentioned, the Adi Varaha and the Neela Varaha. The first one takes place before the ten avataras. Adi Hiranyaxa is killed by this avatara. The second is the third avatara among the ten avataras. Another Hiranyaxa is killed by this avatara. After describing the avataras upto Sri Rama, the birth of Ravana and Kumbhakarna is mentioned. These are stated to be the very persons who were Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaxa earlier. The birth of Dasharata is mentioned. The early background of Vali, Sugriva, Jambavan, Angada, Tara, Neela, and other vanaras is mentioned. These were Indra, Surya, Yama, Chandra, Shachi, and Agni respectively. The avatara of Vayu as Hanuman is graphically described: sa devatAnAM prathamo guNAdhiko | babhUva nAmnA hanumAn.h prabhaJNchanaH || The fact that Sri Rama is Lord Vishnu Himself is well-known. We are further informed here that the Vasudeva form of the Supreme God assumed the incarnation of Sri Rama, while His Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha forms are present as an avesha in Laxmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna respectively. In the context of explaining the various avataras of the God and the background of the others, the divine nature of the shanka, chakra, etc., is also explained. Durga is the abhimani deity of the chakra, Shri is that of the shanka, Vayu is that of the gada, Bhu is that of Padma, Sarasvati is that of Saranga, Vayu of five forms is of five arrows, and Durga is again of Khadga. durgAdhichakrAdhidevI syAt.h shrIshcha shaN^khaAdhidevatA | vAyurgadAdhidevaH syAd.h bhUmiH padmAbhimAninI || durgaiva khaN^gadevI syAt.h shArN6aJNchaiva sarasvatI |
paJNcha bANAH paJNcha prANAH- (padyamAlA) This chapter is closed by mentioning the fact that Sita is Goddess Laxmi herself. svayaM ramA sIrata eva jAtA sIteti rAmArthamanUpamA yA | videharAjasya hi yaj~nabhUmau suteti tasyaiva tatastu sA bhUt.h ||
Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Chapter – IV
Chapters 4 through 9 give a brief account of Sri Rama's story. All the major events of Sri Rama's story are narrated. While narrating some of the crucial events like Ahalya's episode, Manthara's episode, and Surpanakha's episode, the subtle issues of dharma and adharma are clarified. The relevance of these episodes is explained along with the main purpose of the theme. The background of the personalities concerned and the events are explained as well. Thus the objective of the narration of the different events of the story is not merely for the interest of the story but for the interest of the moral and spiritual aspects. Since hte main events of Sri RAma's story are well known, I will highlight only the moral and the spiritual aspects that are brought out in this portion of the Tatparyanirnaya. The first important event in Sri Rama's story is Vishvamitra's invitation to Sri Rama to protect the sacrifice he had undertaken from the demons. This indicates the main purpose of Sri Rama's incarnation viz., protecting the sages and other innocent persons from the onslaught of the demons. Sri Rama kills Tataka and Subahu and throws Mareecha into the sea. This very Tataka will be born as Putana in Krishnavatara. After the destruction of these and the completion of the sacrifice, Vishvamitra takes Sri Rama and Laxmana to the capital of the country of Videha. On the way, Ahalya is released from her curse by the touch of Sri Rama. Here are the instances of two women: one who was cruel and therefore destroyed and one who had suffered at the hands of Indra and Gautama and was released from her suffering. Gautama had indulged in excessive penance. This imbalance had to be cut down by provoking him. Therefore, Indra encroached upon Gautama's wife Ahalya. She was innocent but had become a victim of the circumstances.Hence, Sri RAma relieved her from her suffering. atiriktaM tayo hartuM gautamasyAshrame rahaH | surakAryaM surapatiH kurvan.h bhAryAM samaspR^ishat.h || (saN^.rA. I-6-18) On arrival at Mithila, Sri Rama was informed of the condition for the marriage of Sita. He broke the bow of Shiva and married her. The marriage was celebrated in a befitting way. On his way to Ayodhya, Parashurama confronts him. Both Parashurama and Sri Rama were the incarnations of Lord Vishnu. Therefore, there was no question of one defeating the other. However, a demon called Atula had found a place in Parashurama's navel. He was to be destroyed. His penance was also to be taken away. Therefore, Parashurama gave the Sharang Bow to Sri Rama and asked Him to kill Atula. Accordingly, Sri Rama killed him. Thus it was not a war between Parashurama and Sri Rama, but it was only to kill Atula that Sri Rama employed his bow. The fourt chapter narrates these Balakanda episodes. The Ayodhya Kanda events are described in the first 16 verses of the fifth chapter. Dasharata decides to coronate Sri Rama. But under the advice of Manthara, Kaikeyi prevents it. Maanthara was not an ordinary woman. It is well-known that as a result of the samudramathana, Goddess Laxmi was born from the sea. Out of the same samudramathana, the Alaxmi called Jyestha was
also born. She has been the wife of Kali. It was this Alaxmi alias Jyestha who was born as Manthara. Instigated by this Manthara, Kaikeyi asked for her two boons, viz. (i) Sri Rama be banished to the forest for 14 years and (ii) Bharata be installed on the throne. Kaikeyi asked for such cruel boons because a demoness called Nikrti was present in her. According to these boons, Sri Rama proceeds to the forest. He first meets the Nishada King Guha. Being honored by him, he proceeds to Chitrakuta. In the meanwhile, Dasharata dies.Bharata arrives, and completing Pitrkarya, he proceeds to Chitrakuta to persuade Sri Rama to return. Sri Rama does not oblige him. Bharata returns to Ayodhya with the Padukas of Sri Rama and lives outside the city of Ayodhya in Nandigrama. After Sri Rama and Sita lived in Chitrakuta for some time, Indra's son Jayanta appeared in the form of a crow and injures Sita in the breast. He indulges in this cruel act because a demon called Kuranga was present in him. Sri Rama throws a grass blade at the eye of this crow and destroys one eye of all crows. Since then, crows have only one eye. Then Sri Rama entered Dandaka forest. In Dandaka forest, a sage called Sharabhanga offered himself to fire in the presence of Sri Rama. He was very old and was unable to perform even his minimum rituals. Dharmashastra permits self-immolation for such aged persons. anushhTAnAsamarthasya vAnaprasthasya jIryataH | jalAnashanabhR^igvagnimahAprasthAnamishhyate || (Varaha Purana) A person in Vanaprastha Ashrama who is not able to perform his miniimum rituals to old age may take to self-immolation by drowning himself in water, observing a fast, falling from the peak of a mountain, or offering himself to fire. Accordingly, Sharabhanga performed selfimmolation in the presence of Sri Rama. After this event, the demon Viradha confronts Sri Rama. He tries to kidnap Sita and carries Sri Rama and Laxmana on his shoulders. Sri Rama cuts his arms and throws him in a pit. His arms were cut because he had obtained a boon from Brahma that whoever is held by him in his arms cannot escape from it.
Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Chapter - V to IX
kAj~nAnamApaddapi mandakaTAxamAtrAt.h sargasthitipralayasamsR^itimoxahetoH | devyAH hareH kimu viDambanamAtrametad.h vikrIDatoH suranarAdivadeva tasmAt.h || (V-36) On returning to His ashrama after killing Mareecha, Sri Rama found the ashrama empty. He moved on in the forest in search of Sita. First He saw Jatayu, who was hurt by Ravana. He learned about Ravana kidnapping Sita. He moved on and killed Kabandha on the way. Then He met Shabari in Matangavana and received her hospitality. Then he saw Hanuman and Sugreeva on Rishyamuka Hill. Hanuman approached Sri Rama and prostrated at His feet. With this, the fifth chapter of Tatparya Nirnaya closes. The events of Kishkindha Kanda are described in the sixth chapter. Hanuman, who prostrated at the feet of Sri Rama, was taken up by Sri Rama's arms with great affection. He took Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders and brought them to Rishyamuka, where Sugreeva stayed. Sugreeva explained his pitiable condition on account of his brother's aggressive posture. Sri Rama promised him that his aggressive brother Vali will be killed, and the kingship will be restored to him. Sugreeva also agreed to help Sri Rama find Sita. However, he wanted to know whether Sri Rama had a sufficient amount of strength to fight Vali. Therefore, he showed Rama the body of Dundubhi, who was killed by Vali. Sri Rama threw that dead body a hundred yojanas away with His toe. The carcass killed a number of demons living on Rasatala. Then, Sugreeva showed Rama seven demons present in the form of seven tala trees and said that if He could destroy these with one arrow, He could kill Vali. Sri Rama destroyed all of them with one arrow, which, after destroying the tala trees, pierced the seven underworlds viz., Atala, Vitala, etc., up to Patala and also destroyed the demons knows as Kumiudi. Then, Sugreeva took Rama to the city of Kishkindha to kill Vali. Vali pounced on Sugreeva, but Sri Rama did not kill him, pretending that he could not distinguish between the two. The real reason was to give an opportunity for the brothers to reconcile and to avoid a confrontation. Even the long enmity between the brothers vanishes when they reach the point of crisis. saubhrAtrameva yadi vAJNchati vAlinaiva | nAhaM nirAgasamathAgrajaniM hanishhye || dIrdhaH sahodaragato na bhaveddhi kopo | dIrdho.api kAraNamR^ite vinivartate cha || When Sugreeva again appealed to Sri Rama to kill Vali, Sri Rama threw a strong arrow at Vali and killed him. It is well-known that Sri Rama killed Vali from behind a tree. The reason for this was neither fear nor treachery. Vali was also a great devotee and would have prostrated at the feet of Sri Rama if he had seen him. Then, it would have been a dilemma whether to stand by His
promise to Sugreeva or to stand by Vali, who had prostrated at His feet. Therefore, Sri Rama preferred to be invisible. bhakto mamaushha yadi mAmabhipashyatIha | pAdau dhruvaM mama sameshhyati nirvichAraH || yogyo vadho nahi janasya padAnatasya | rAjyArthinA ravisutena vadho.arthitashhcha || tasmAdadR^ishyatanureva nihanmi shakraputram.h | tvitIha tamadR^ishyatayA jaghAna || Then, during the rainy season, there was a halt for four months. Sugreeva had not taken any initiative to find Sita. However, on the strong advice of Hanuman, the vanaras spread over different parts were gathered and started. Sri Rama gave his ring to Hanuman to show it to Sita to identify. After a good deal of wandering, they found that the time limit given by Sugreeva was over. Tara and Angada suggested that the efforts should be abandoned. But Hanuman opposed this. They moved on and ultimately reached the Mahendra Mountain. At this place, they met Sampati, Jatayu's elder brother. He informed them that he had seen Ravana taking Sita away. She is kept in Ashokavana. The distance between Mahendra Mountain and Lanka was a hundred yojanas. Other vanaras were not able to jump this far. They all appealed to Hanuman to cross the sea and trace Sita. With this, the sixth chapter closes. Hanuman offers salutations to Sri Rama in his mind before he takes a big jump over the sea. The sea became turbulent, and the living beings within the sea came out. The trees on the Mahendra mountain were uprooted and the Mainaka mountain came out of the sea to offer him a resting place. As he moved on, the mother of the serpents, viz. Surasa, confronts him. He enters her belly and comes out. Then, Simhika, a demoness who used to drag persons by attacking their shadows, drags him. He destroyed her also. Finally, he lands on the Trikuta hill that surrounded the city of Lanka. Throughout the process of crossing the sea, he had considerably expanded his body. Now, he contracts it to as small as a cat. He finds Sita in Ashokavana under a Simshupa tree. He hands the ring given by Sri Rama to Sita. In return, Sita gives her Chudamani to Hanuman to give to Sri Rama. In order to make Ravana aware of his strength and mission, Hanuman starts destroying Ravana's gardens. On hearing this, Ravana asks his army to punish him. Finding that they were not able to do the task, he deputes his son, Aksha. Hanuman kills Aksha. Then Indrajit is deputed. Indrajit employs the Brahmastra against him. Out of respect for Brahma, he pretends to have been caught. The demons tie him with Nagapasha. Finding that they have used an inferior weapon, the Brahmastra returns. Then Hanuman is taken into Ravana's presence. Ravana orders his tail to be burned. With the fire applied to his tail, Hanuman burns Lanka and returns to Sri Rama. He offers the Chudamani to Him and embraces Him with great affection, as it were, offering himself as a present to Him. svAtmapradAnamadhikaM pachanAtmajasya |
kurvan.h samashlishhadamalaM paramAbhitushhTaH || (VI-50) The eighth chapter begins with Sri Rama lying on a grass mat in order to persuade the sea to make the way for Him to go to Lanka. This was the mild way of persuading the sea before any harsh step was taken. At that time, Vibhishana came to join Sri Rama and fight against his own brother Ravana since his conduct was adharma. Sugreeva and all the others opposed accepting him as he belonged to the enemy's group. However, Hanuman stated that Vibhishana is genuinely supporting Sri Rama and that he be accepted. Sri Rama accepted him and coronated him on the kingdom of Lanka as he was sure of the defeat of Ravana. Since the sea did not make way easily, Sri Rama took His arrow to aim at him. The samudraraja came out and suggested that a bridge be built over the sea. Sri Rama had Nala build the bridge assisted by the vanaras. He crossed the sea and landed on Lanka. Ravana had made elaborate arrangements to protect the four gates of the city of Lanka. Sri Rama also made appropriate distribution of the vanara army. A detailed description of the battle is given in this chapter. After Ravana is killed, Shiva challenges Sri Rama to fight since He had killed his devotee Ravana. Then, Sri Rama gets His arrow ready to aim at Shiva. However, Shiva realizes his mistake. Then, a fire ordeal is pretended for Sita pratikrti. Sita returns from Kailasa. Sri Rama returns to Ayodhya by Pushpaka Vimana. Sri Rama is coronated. He favors all suitably. Hanuman asks for only uninterrupted devotion toward Him. prachardhatAM bhaktiralaM xaNe xaNe tvayIsha me hrAsavivarjitA sadA | (VIII-248) With this happy note, the chapter closes.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Samudra mathana The delineation of the Vedavyasavatara is the theme of the tenth chapter. However, as a preliminary to it, the samudramathana episode is narrated. The purpose of Vyasavatara was to remove ignorance and confusion caused by the curse of Gautama in respect of the knowledge enshrined in the Vedas, Pancharatra, Itihasapurana, and other sacred pieces of literature. For such an ignorance and confusion Kali was considerably responsible. He arose at the time of the samudramathana along with poison. Not only the personality of Kali was Kali but the ignorance and the confusion caused by him were also Kali. Destroying these was meant to destroy Kali. This was the purpose of Vyasavatara. Therefore, in order to point out that such a Kali had arisen at the time of samudramathana, that episode is narrated in the tenth chapter before the narration of Vyasavatara. The details of samudramathana are well-known. Therefore, only such items that are especially mentioned in Tatparyanirnaya and that have a deep religious significance will be stated here. At the close of the 28th Dvapara Yuga, Chaturmukha Brahma, Shiva, Indra, and other deities approached Lord Vishnu present at Shvetadvipa at the center of Kshirasamudra. They offered prayers to Him and informed Him that due to Durvasa's curse, Indra lost his power and glory and was defeated by the demons. Therefore, they had come to Him seeking protection. As per the instructions of Lord Vishnu, the deities entered into an agreement with the demons through Bali Chakravarthi and attempted to bring the Mandara mountain for samudramathana. They were not able to lift it. Then, God lifted it by His left hand and placed it on the shoulders of Ananta, i.e. Garuda. The deities wanted to test their strength again. When they tried to lift the mountain placed on Garuda's shoulder, it fell down and crushed them. They were restored to their original form by the grace of God. God lifted the mountain again, placed it on Garuda, and, seated on Garuda, proceeded to Kshirasamudra with the deities and the demons. He made the Mandara mountain the churning rod and Vasuki the rope, and He churned the Kshirasagara with the deities and the demons. The demons preferred to hold the snake Vasuki on the side of the head, and the deities held it on the tail side. This caused fatigue to the demons. Kurmavatara The mountain sank because of its weight. Then God lifted it and placed it on his back, assuming the Kurma form. Not only was the mountain held by Him on His back, but He entered it and supported it. He entered the deities and the demons also to enable them to churn. The Halahala poison was drunk by Vayu
In the course of churning the Halahala poison came out. Vayu took it in his hand as per God's instructions, rubbed a little portion of it, reduced its vigor, and gave it to Shiva. Shiva sipped it. It was so little that it could go down only upto his throat. He became
unconscious even for that much. God touched him, and he regained his consciousness. Vayu collected the poison in a golden vessel, drank it, and digested it. Out of the little poison given to him, only a fraction was drunk by Shiva. The remaining portion became the body of Kali. From this poison, cruel objects like snakes, wolves, and tigers were born. From samudramathana, objects like the horse Ucchaishrava, Airavata, elephants, a thousand apsaras belonging to the amrita group came out. The weapons of deities, ornaments, the Parijata tree, and Kamadhenu i.e., Surabhi also came out. The Mahalakshmi and Dhanvantari forms of God arose with the amritakalasha. When the amritakalasha came out, the demons snatched it. God allowed them to snatch it since He desired that they break the agreement and be punished for that. Then, God assumed the Mohini form and offered to distribute the amrita. She asked the deities and the demons to sit separately in rows and asked the demons to close their eyes as She felt embarassed by their staring at Her. She served the deities amrita and killed Rahu by assuming the Purusha form. Rahu’s heas only is the place of Rahu and Ketu The head of Rahu became the abode of the planets Rahu and Ketu. When Rahu's head was cut, a drop of amrita had already moved into his body. Therefore, both his head and the body survived. His body without the head was thrown into Svadudaka. Rahu remained in his head. [Note: Along with him, there are 100 Ketus, who are deities, in this head. The offerings made to Rahu are received by these deities. The demon Rahu present in the head receives unholy offerings only. This Rahu obstructs the sun and the moon. The popular impression that the head became Rahu and the rest Ketu is not correct. Rahu's head itself is the adhisthana for both Rahu and Ketu.] When Rahu's head was cut, the demons rushed towards God with their weapons.They were all killed. However, Kali was not killed. He entered men. [Note: Kali can never enter God, Lakshmi, or Vayu. He enters into Shiva and others only occasionally.] Kali's wife Alakshmi and her sons who supervise evil also came from Kshirasagara. Lakshmi made the chest of God her abode. Kaustubha found a place at God's neck. The other valuable items were given as gifts to different deities at Lakshmisvayamvara. Kali entered Shiva and composed the evil scriptures. His mischief could not be corrected by others. This Kali is invisible, unimaginable, and present in all. The ignorance and confusion caused by him had to be removed by the revival of the sacred scriptures. In view of this, Chaturmukha Brahma and other deities appealed to God to take an appropriate incarnation. Lord Hari took the incarnation of Sri Vedavyasa.
II Parashara and Satyavati Vashishta, who was born in a jar along with Agastya as a son of Mitravaruna, married Arundhati and begot including Shakti 100 sons. Parasara was his grandson. Earlier, Vashishta was born from the sacrificial pit of Brahma, married Akshamala, and functioned as chief priest of Ikshvakus. Still earlier, he was born as a manasa putra of Brahma and had married Arundhati. Parasara, the grandson of Vashishta, performed penance to have God himself as his son.God informed him that King Vasu of the Pururava royal family known as Uparichara, as he
used to frequently move over the sky as a result of his great deeds, was born to Kritayajna in the Dvapara age. Uparichara got twin children, one male and one female, through a fish. He kept the boy with him and handed the female child over to the fisherman chief. The female child had grown into a beautiful girl and was named Satyavati. He would assume the form of his son through her .Accordingly Parasara duly married Satyavati.This marriage took place in yajnasala. Vasishta,Yagnavalkya and other sages were present.King Vayu himself gave Satyavati in marriage to Parasara. Then the God assumed the form of their son. [Note: God is never born like an ordinary child. The popular impression that Vedavyasa was born and that too when Satyavati was a virgin is not correct.] Vedavyasa revealed himself in the midst of the river Yamuna. He was brilliant like the sun. His palms and feet were marked with the lines of the conch and the disc. His arms were in the posture abhaya mudra and jnana mudra. Parasara performed upanayana for him within seven days. Then Vedavyasa went to the Meru mountain followed by Chaturmukha Brahma and others. He arranged the Vedas and composed the Brahmasutras, Mahabharata, Puranas, and Bhagavata. Chaturmukha and other deities directly learned these from Him. Vedavyasa wandered all over the world in order to instruct the noble jivas. Once, He converted a small creature as a king. However, He told him that he would be entitled for salvation only when he was born as a Brahmana. The birth of Shukla Shiva performed penance to become the son of Vyasa. Vedavyasa pretended to perform penance to get Shiva as his son. This was only to mislead undeserving persons. Shiva was born as a son of Vyasa through Ghritachi, who had arrived in the form of a parrot while Vyasa was engaged in churning the Arani. Shuka was actually born from Arani. However since Ghritachi sesired to name him as Shuka he was ao named. Vyasa never had any sensual attraction either towards Ghritachi or any other woman. As soon as Shuka was born, Vayu entered him. It was only Vayu who was entitled for the instructions dierectly from Lord Hari. Shuka received direct instructions from Vyasa because of the presence of Vayu in him. In the same way, while receiving the instructions from Vyasa, Shesha entered Paila, Garuda entered Sumantu, Brahma entered Vaishampayana, and Indra entered Jaimini. This enabled these sages to receive instructions in their respective areas of knowledge.
Shri Vyasa taught Rgveda to Paila, Krsna yajurveda to Vaishampayana, Shukla yajurveda to Surya, Samaveda to Jaimini, and Atharvanaveda to Sumantu. He taught all the lores to His son Shuka and Narada. Then, Shri Vyasa created Romaharsana as a Suta by caste and instructed him to propagate Itihasa, Purana, and Panchatantra. He instructed Sanatkumara, Bhrigu, and Jaimini to propagate Dhyanayoga, Karmayoga, and Karma mimamsa respectively. Shri Vyasa himself composed the first and the last sutras of Daivi mimamsa and asked Paila and Shesha to compose the whole text. Further, he edited the six satvika puranas (Vishnu, Narada, Bhagavata, Garuda, Padma, and Varaha) based on Panchatantra, six Rajasa Puranas (Brahma, Brahmanda, Brahmavaivarta, Markandeya, Bhavisya, and Vamana) based on superficial references in the Vedas, and six tamasa Puranas (Matsya, Kurma, Linga, Shiva, Skanda, and Agni) based on Pasupata Agama. Through the above literature, Brahma and other deities and Sanatkumara and
Other sages regained their knowledge.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
As a preliminary to the story of Sri Krishna and the Pandavas, the origin of Chandravamsha is described. The early persons of chandravamsha and suryavamsha are as follows: Brahma | _____________________________________ | | Atri Marichi | | Chandra Kashyapa | | Budha + Ila Surya | | Pururava Vaivasvata manu | | Ayu (Ila) Sudyumna | Yayati + Devayani + Sharmishta | | _____________ ____________ | | | | | Yadu Turvasu Druhya Anu Puru
From this chart, it is clear that both chandravamsha and suryavamsha had originated from Brahma. An interesting point in the development of these two families is that Sudyumna, the fifth descendant on the suryavamsha side, used to be male for one month, and on the chandravamsha side, female for one month. He used to be called Sudyumna and Ila respectively during these months. When he functioned as a female, he begot a son (Pururava) through Budha of chandravamsha. Thus he established a link between the two families. The Origin of Yadu and Kuru families In the family of Yadu, the yadavas were born. In the family of Puru, the fifth son of Yayati, the fifth son of Yayati, Bharata, the son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala, was born. Kuru was also born in this family, so the Kauravas and Pandavas were known as Bharatas. The fifth descendant of Kuru was Pratipa. He got three sons: Devapi, Bahlika, and Shantanu. Devapi did not become the king though he was the eldest as he suffered from a skin disease. Bahlika was named king of the Bahlika region, and Shantanu succeeded Pratipa as king.
Bahlika was Prahlada in his earlier birth. He got a son named Somadatta, who was one of the Rudras, Patratapa. His three sons (Bhuri, Bhurishrava, and Sala) were also Rudras (Ajaikapat, Ahirbudni, and Virupaksha). Among these, the last one had the avesha of the other ten Rudras (Raivata, Aja, Bhava, Bheema, Vama, Vrishakapi, Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhni, Bahurupa, and Mahan). The background of the birth of Shantanu and Bhishma The birth of king Shantanu has a background chaturmukha Brahma once visited the sea on a full moon day. On that occasion, the sea (Varuna) was sporting with the river Ganga and threw a few water drops at Brahma. Brahma became upset and cursed him to be born on the earth twice. Consequently, Varuna was born as King Mahabhishak and again as Shantanu. He also cursed Ganga to meet her husband with the human body. "Shantanu" means "be calm." Since Brahma ordered him to become calm, Varuna got the name Shantanu when he was born on the earth. There is another explanation for Shantanu's name. By the touch of Shantanu, elderly people used to regain their youth and be happy. "Sham" means "happiness," and "tanu" means "giver." Therefore, he was given the name Shantanu. Shantanu begot the son Devavrata, later known as Bhishma. The birth of Bhishma also had a background.. Among eight Vasus, the eighth one was known as Dyu. He was also known as Prabhasa and Vibhavasu.His wife was named Varangi. She had a friend of the same name . Varangi asked Dyu to get the divine cow Nandini for her friend so that, with the milk, she could get a long life and retain her youth permanently. Dyu went to Sage Vashishtha's ashrama along with seven other Vasus and tied Nandini up. This upset Vashishtha, and he cursed them to be born as men. He particularly cursed Dyu to live as a man (Bhishma) as long as the duration of the eight men's lives. He cursed Varangi, who instigated the unholy act, to be born as Amba, become a male (Shikhandi), and be responsible for the Dyu's death. The curse was actually given by Brahma, who was present in Vashishtha.
The Vasus let off the cow Nandini and appealed to Brahma to help them not to be born from the womb of a human being. Brahma agreed. The Vasus came to know that Ganga was going to be the wife of Shantanu without assuming the human body. They went to her and told her that they would be born as her children. Ganga told them that they would be killed as soon as they were born, and she should not get any sin for this. However, one of them would live long. Ganga’s Condition to marry Shantanu Ganga went to King Pratipa and sat on his right thigh. Only a daughter and daughter-inlaw have the right to do this. (The wife has to sit on the left thigh.) Pratipa asked her to be his daughter-in-law. Ganga agreed to marry his son Shantanu on three conditions: “i) your son should not ask me as to who I was, ii) he should not prevent her from doing something wrong, iii) and he should not question her when she does something wrong.” If he broke any one of these conditions, Ganga would leave him. King Pratipa agreed and informed Shantanu in due course. Ganga begot eight children. She killed seven of them one after the other. When she proceeded to kill the eighth child, Shantanu asked her who she was and why she was killing the children. He prevented her from killing this child. Thus he violated the three conditions laid down by her. Therefore, she left him, took her eighth child, and gave him
to Brihaspati. The boy learned the Vedas and the other sacred literature from Brihaspati for fifty years. Then Ganga sent him to Parashuram. He continued his study of spiritual literature for another fifty years and studied the use of weapons for twenty-five years. Ganga took him back and allowed him to roam on her bank. At this time, Shantanu arrived at the place. He found that the flow of water was prevented by arrows and wondered at this. Ganga arrived, told him that the boy was his son, and asked him to take him. She also told him that the other seven children drowned in the water had regained their original form. Shantanu took him and made him Yuvaraja. Devavrata again went to Brihaspati and learned Vedas for fifty years. From Parashurama, he learned weapons for another fifty years and listened to spiritual discourses for three hundred years. Finally, he returned to his father. Kripa and Kripi At that time, when Ganga gave birth to the eighth child, Shantanu found twin children left in the forest by someone. These were the children of Sharadvan.Vishkambha, a Rudra, and Tara, the wife of Brihaspati, were born as these twin children. Shantanu took them and named them Kripa and Kripi. Kripa became a friend of Devavrata. He learned all Shastras from Vishwamitra and philosophical doctrines from Vedavyasa. Birth of Drona At about the same time Kripa was born, Bharadvaja, the son of Brihaspati, begot Drona through Ghritachi. He was called Drona because he was born in a type of vessel known as Drona. He was Brihaspati himself, and Brahma was also present in him. Bharadvaja himself taught him the Vedas and the weapons.
At about this time Prishata, the king of Panchala, begot the son Drupada. He was the divine singer Hoohoo. Avaha Marut was also present in him. He studied the weapons from Bharadvaja along with Drona. He told Drona Let us Enjoy kingdom together” Drona married Kripi. He lived near Hastinapur.The King Virata was the same age as Drona and Kripa. He was the divine singer Haha, and Marut Vivaha was present in him. Shantanu marries Satyavati Once, Shantanu proceeded to go hunting and saw a beautiful girl, Satyavati. Earlier, she was Acchoda, the daughter of Agnishvat belonging to the amurta pitrgana group. Lord Vishnu had blessed her saying that He would be born as her son. She was now born as the daughter of King Vasu and was brought up at the residence of a fisherman. Shantanu was attracted to her and asked the fisherman for her hand in marriage. However, the fisherman set the condition that her son should be made the successor to the throne. When Devavrata learned of this, he assured the fisherman that he would relinquish the throne. He took the oath that he would remain a bachelor so that the question of his progeny claiming the throne would not arise. Because of such a strong oath, his name became Bhishma. Shantanu gave him the boon that he would die only when he desired to die and that he would be invincible in war. Satyavati begot two sons, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya. Shantanu died when these two children were still young. Chitrangada also died before marriage. Amba, Ambika and Ambalika Bhishma crowned Vichitravirya as king. He brought the three girls Amba, Ambika, and Ambalika for Vichitravirya, conquering King Salva. Ambika and Ambalika agreed to marry Vichitravirya, while Amba refused to marry. She had already made up her mind to
marry Salva. She returned to Salva, but Salva did not accept her. She then went to Parashurama, who fought with Bhishma. However, to bring fame to Bhishma, he pretended to have been defeated by him. Amba performed penance to become male in order to kill Bhishma. Shiva gave her the boon to become male and be an instrument to kill Bhishma. He also gave her a garland and told her that whoever accepted this garland would be able to kill Bhishma. She went around with this garland to give it to a king. Nobody accepted it out of fear of Bhishma. She kept it at the door of Drupada and died. Later, Drupada performed penance to get a male child. However, Shiva told him that he would get a female child who will become male. Amba was born as his daughter. She was named Shikhandini. Drupada performed upanayana, etc, for her as if she was male. Drupada arranged for her marriage with the daughter of Hiranyavarma, the king of Dasharna country. This wife of Shikhandini found that she was not a male. She reported to her father, who became angry. To avoid unpleasantness, Shikhandini went to sage Isika, who asked her to go to Tumburu. The Gandharvas used to change their sex. Tumburu exchanged his male body with the female body of Shikhandini. Consequently, Shikhandini became Shikhandi. A mere male body was not sufficient to get Purushatva
for Shikhandini. Therefore, Tumburu also entered into her partially. A woman would never become a man. Vichitravirya lived for some time with his two wives, Ambika and Ambalika. Later, he died without having had children. His mother Satyavati remembered Sri Vedavyasa. He had promised her that whenever she remembered him, he would appear before her. Accordingly, he came. Satyavati requested her to get progeny through her two daughtersin-law. When Vyasa went near Ambika, she closed her eyes. Consequently, the son born was blind. He was named Dhrtarashtra . He was a Gandharva king of the same name. Vayu also partially entered him. Satyavati asked Vyasa to bless Ambalika with a son. When Vyasa went near her, she became pale. Therefore, a pale boy, Pandu, was born. Satyavati asked Ambika to meet Vyasa once again. Instead, Ambika sent her maid servant to Vyasa. Consequently, a Shudra boy, Vidura, was born. Vidura was Yama himself. The background of Vidhura’s Birth There is an interesting background for the birth of Yama as Vidhura. Earlier, Sage Animandavya was performing penance to attain the stature of Vasishtha. A group of thieves who had stolen royal property were being chased by the servants of the king. They left the property at the sashrama of Animandavya and ran away. The servants of the king arrested Animandavya and put him on the hanging pole. He continued his penance sitting in that position only. The king released him. He went to Yama and asked him why he was made a victim of such a punishment. Yama told him that he had pierced a fly when he was a boy, and this was the punishment for that. The real reason was that he was trying to attain the stature of Vasishtha, which was beyond his capacity. Animandavya was angry and cursed Yama to be born as a Shudra. Consequently, Yama was born as Vidura. Bhishma arranged the performance of Jatakarama and other Samskaras for Dhrtarashtra , Pandu, and Vidura. They were educated in the sacred literature, political science, and the wielding of weapons. Dhrtarashtra was coronated as king. Pandu was made the army chief. Later, Dhrtarashtra gave the throne to Pandu. Vidura was made minister.
The Gandharva Tumburu was born as a son of Gavalgana, the charioteer of Vichitravirya, and was named Sanjaya. The Marut Vivaha was partially present in him. Dhrtarashtra and Gandhari Dhrtarashtra married Gandhari, the daughter of Gandhara King Subala. As her husband was blind, Gandhari blindfolded her own eyes. Shakuni was her younger brother He was rhe demon Dvapara born as Shakuni. The word "Dvapara" means "a person who is always suspicious about truth and entertains contradictory ideas." Since men develop such a tendency during Dvapara age it is named as Dvapara.
Kunti Madri and Pandu King Shura gave his daughter Pritha as adopted daughter to King Kuntibhoja.Therefore, she came to be known as Kunti. She was the wife of Pandu in his original form of Pravaha Marut and went by the same name, Kunti. Kuntibhoja was Kurma Marut in his original form. Sage Durvasa came to his city and desired to observe chaturmaya in his place. King Kuntibhoja offered all facilities and asked his daughter, at that time thirteen years old, to serve him. She devotedly did so. Durvasa was pleased by her service and taught her a mantra by which she could call the deities. Out of curiosity, she called Surya. She was attracted by him and sported with him. Consequently, she got a male child. The child was Surya himself in another form, but the demons Sahasravarma and Narakasura were also present in him. Kunti, afraid of public ostracism, put the child in a box filled with valuable gems and floated it on the river Asvanadi.It reached the river Ganga through Charmanvati and Yamuna. A suta, i.e. Adhiratha, lifted it and adopted the child as his son. Adhiratha's wife Radha also bestowed all her affection on him. He studied the scriptures, weapons, etc. He was named Karna and Vasushena. Pandu married Kunti and Madri. Vidura married Aruni, the daughter of Shura through his shudra wife. Ritayana, the king of Madra, begot a son (Shalya) and a daughter (Madri). Shalya was Prahlada's brother Sahlada in an earlier birth. Vayu was partially present in him. Madri was Pandu's wife in the earlier birth also. Dhrtarashtra asked Pandu to rule over the kingdom. Pandu ruled guided by Bhishma. Sri Vedavyasa took Satyavati, Ambika, and Ambalika to his ashrama. In due course, Satyavati and Ambalika attained Vaikuntha while Ambika attained sarupya, a kind of liberation. After some time, Pandu retired to the forest and lived in Badarikashrama. Unfortunately, he killed an ascetic who was sporting with his wife assuming the form of a deer. The ascetic cursed him that he should also die when he was sporting with his wife. Pandu moved to Shatashringa mountain and lived in Pandukeshvara with Kunti and Madri. II Brahma Indra appeal for Krishnavatara At this juncture, the deities Indra and others, led by Chaturmukhabrahma and accompanied by Bhudevi, approached Lord Vishnu. They described the fight between the deities and the demons that had taken place earlier, recalling the warding off of Sambara's maya, the destruction of Viprachitti's weapons,the killing of Kalanemi, and other great events of that battle. They further told Him that these demons were then born again.If these demons listen to discourses by sages and Brahmanas and obtain devotion to you it will affect the very setup described in Scripture. Therefore we appeal to you to take an
incarnation mislead the demon and destroy them.” They informed that Kamsa, Jarasandha, Hamsa and Dhibika were already born.Kamsa and Kalanemi were reborn.Jarasandha was Viprachitti. Hamsa and Dhibika were Madhu and aitabha. Ravana
and Kumbakarna were reborn as Shishupala and Dantavaktra .The demon Bali was born as Salva. The demon Bana was born as Kichaka.All these had to be destroyed. Hearing all of this, Lord Vishnu assured Brahma that He would take the necessary incarnation. He moved to Meru mountain with all the deities and made Brahma announce which deity should take which form to assist Him in the task of his incarnation. Chaturmukha Brahma informed Lord Vishnu that he had cursed Kashyapa to be born as a Kshatriya but undertake a Vaishya's duty of rearing cows. This was because Kashyapa had refused to return Varuna's cows, which he had brought for his sacrifice. He was then born as a son of King Sura and was named Vasudeva. One of the Vasus, Drona, was born as Nanda. He was the son of King Sura through his Vaishya wife. Both Vasudeva and Devaki and Nanda and Yashoda had performed penance to beget the Lord as their son. Therefore, He revealed Himself as Vasudeva's son first and then moved to Nanda's place. God accepted Brahma's appeal and asked the deities to be born as men. Accordingly, the deities were born. Kubera was born as Bhagadatta. The demon Baskala was partially present in him. Yuyudhana was born as a son of Satyaka and was known as Satyaki. Garuda, Samvaha Marut, and Vishnu Chakra, i.e. Pradyumna, were partially present in him. Kritavarma, the son of Hridika, had the presence of Panchajanya, i.e. Aniruddha, and Pravaha Marut partially. Similarly, the other deities and demons were also born. Those who supported the Pandavas were the deities and their followers. Those who opposed them were demons and men of unsteady mind.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Vasudeva and Devaki A Gandharva named Devaka was born as the son of Ahuka and the brother of Ugrasena. He retained the same name, i.e. Devaka. His daughter was Devaki. Earlier, she was Aditi, one of the thirteen wives of Kashyapa. Ahuka adopted Devaki as his daughter. Thus she was both the sister and aunt of Kamsa. When she was given in marriage to Vasudeva, Kamsa himself took the couple in his chariot to their residence. At that time, Vayu told him through an ethereal voice that Devaki's eighth son would kill him. On hearing this, Kamsa extracted a promise from Vasudeva that he would surrender his children as soon as they were born. Vasudeva married six sisters of Devaki also. He had already married Rohini, the daughter of Bahlika. He married Diti, who was born as a daughter of the king of Kashi, and begot Paundraka Vasudeva through her. Paundraka Vasudeva was the well-known evil person Vena in his earlier birth. He used to declare that he was Vishnu Himself. Vasudeva married Danu, who was born as the daughter of King Karavira, and begot Srigala through her. Srigala was the demon Dhundhu, the son of the demon Madhu. He and Paundraka Vasudeva became the enemies of Yadavas later. Vasudeva did not entertain these two wives after he married Devaki. He begot Balabhadra among the nine sons and one daughter (Subhadra or Chitra) through Rohini.
The Background for Kamsa killing the children For the episode of Kamsa killing six children of Devaki, there is an interesting background. They were six sons of Marichi. They laughed at Sage Devala, as he was very ricketee.He cursed them.They were born as the sons of Kalanemi. They became known as Sadgarbha They used to remain in the water at Patala loka performing penance to obtain immortality. Brahma granted them immortality. However Hiranyakashipu became angry at this. He did not like his brother's grandsons obtaining a boon from Brahma (Kalanemi was the son of Hiranyakashipu's brother Hiranyaksha). Therefore, he cursed them to be born again and be killed by their own father. Accordingly, they were born as Devaki's children and were killed by their own father. Kamsa as Kalanemi was their father in their earlier birth. The boon given by Brahma to be immortal and the curse given by Hiranyakashipu to be killed by their father were reconciled by Durga. Durga used to keep each one of these in a cave and make them sleep for one full year. She used to take the jiva of each one and put it in the embryo of Devaki, thus acquiring a new body. It used to be killed by Kamsa. Durga used to take back this jiva and put it in the sleeping body again. Thus, they were killed by their father Kamsa i.e. Kalanemi and were also immortal. Durga performed this trick as per the direction of God. The birth of Yudhistira
Pandu desired to go to Brahmaloka. However, he was destined to get children by niyoga. One can attain the goal of his life by fulfilling the purpose for which one is born.Pandu was born to get his children by niyoga.Therefor the sages prevented him in the meanwhile Indrajit nd other demons were born as the children of Dhrtarashtra . On hearing this and upon the advice of the sages, Pandu asked Kunti to beget children by niyoga.Kunti told him that she knew a sacred mantra by which she could invite the deities who were superior to Pandu. She requested Pandu to name the deity she should invite. He asked her to invite Yamadharma. She invited him and begot the son Yuddhishtira. When Gandhari learned about the birth of Yuddhishtira, she became jealous and crushed her womb. Vedavyasa collected the pieces of her womb and put them in 101 jars. A hundred male children were born at the rate of one per day. The 101st one was a female, Dushala. The birth of Duryodhana and Dushassana Kali was born as Duryodhana. As soon as he was born, he produced a sound like that of a donkey. The donkeys present outside responded in the same way. Vidura advised Dhrtarashtra to throw him out. However, the demons had already obtained a boon from Shiva that he should be invincible. Indrajit was born as Dushasana, Atikaya as Vikarna, and Khara as Chitrasena. In the same way, different demons were born as Dhrtarashtra 's children. The demon woman Mrisa was born as Dushala. Kuhu was also present in her. The demon Kalakeya was born as Jayadrata, who was responsible for killing Abhimanyu.
The birth of Bhimasena and Balarama Pandu also asked Kunti to invite Vayu. She recited the sacred mantra given by Durvasa and invited him. Vayu touched her and was born as Bhimasena. On the tenth day of Bhimasena's birth, Kunti saw a tiger and dropped him. The Shatashringa mountain on which Bhima fell broke into a hundred pieces. When Bhimasena was two months old, Shesha was born as Balarama. Balarama was in Devaki's womb for three months, and then Durga took him to Rohini's womb. He was born seven months later from Rohini's womb. The incarnation of Sri Krishna Three months after Balarama's birth Krishna was born. The birth of Krishna is only an eye wash; God has no birth. He revealed Himself in the form of a child and pretended to grow like an ordinary child. This is clear from the fact that He revealed Himself to his parents holding the conch, disc, which are His insignia. Krishna asked Vasudeva to take Him to Nanda's residence where Goddess Lakshmi was already born as Durga and a daughter of Nanda. Vasudeva went to Gokula, left Krishna by Yashoda's side, brought Durga, and gave her to Devaki. Kamsa came and took Durga with the impression that the child was the eighth child and crushed it on a rock. The child jumped into the sky and revealed her true form with eight hands holding the respective weapons. She told Kamsa that his destroyer was born elsewhere. She became a child again and lay on Devaki's bed. Kamsa returned home and consulted his ministers. They told him that all newly born children should be killed. He instructed them to do so. Sri Krishna at Gokula At the other end Nanda and Yashoda were very happy with their child Krishna. They gave Brahmanas a gift of twenty lakh cows. Nanda was camping on the bank of the Yamuna river when Krishna was brought. He was on his way to pay taxes to Kamsa. As he returned, a demon named Putana also arrived
and tried to give her poisonous breast milk to Krishna. However, Krishna sucked her breast and killed her. Tataka and Urvashi were present in Putana. The former went to hell while the latter returned to heaven. Urvashi had sported with the Gandharva Tumburu without Kubera's permission. Therefore, Kubera had cursed her to be born as a demon for sometime. When Krishna was four months old, the ritual of utthana, i.e. the child trying to get up and rolling, was performed. At this time, the demon Shakatasura enterd a cart and wanted to run over the child Krishna. However, he was killed by Krishna himself.
The birth of Arjuna Pandu asked Kunti to invite another appropriate deity next to Vayu and get another son. Since Shesha, Garuda, and Shiva were not appropriate deities at this time, she invited Indra. Then Arjuna was born. He had the presence of Nara partially. Vishnu also entered him. Pandu asked Kunti to get one more son. However, Kunti said it was not proper to have any more sons The birth of Uddhava From Upagava, Uddhava. He was Brihaspati himself reborn. Vayu also entered him.Three years after Uddhava's birth, Satyaki was born. On the same day, Chekitana was also born. The order of the birth of chekitana and others is as under: The Marut Pratibha was first born as Chekitana in the Yadu family. At the same time, Kritavarma was born. After three years, Yuddhishtira was born. One year later, Ashvatthama was born. After four days, Duryodhana was born. He was in Gandhari's embryo for two years. Lakshmana was born as Balarama even before Krishna was born as he was anxious to serve Him. In order to show Yashoda that He was God Himself, Krishna showed her Brahmanda in His mouth. Krishna killed Trinavarta afterwards. The birth of Nakula and Sahadeva Madri also desired to have children. Pandu asked Kunti to teach Madri the Mantra. Kunti agreed on the condition that Madri would only use it once. Madri cleverly invited the Ashvini deities so that she could get two children by inviting a deity only once. Vayu entered the Pandavas, who were Indras. Vishnu is the first Indra, Vayu the second, and Yamadharma the third. Nasatya and Dasra were the fourth and fifth Indras. Purandara was the sixth and seventh Indra. In this way, the five Pandavas were Indras.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Sri Krishna as a boy In this chapter, the great and well-known deeds of Sri Krishna when he was still a boy are described.These are well-known.Therefore,these will be just stated in the order in which these are mentioned in the chapter to enable readers to recollect these events and realize the glory of Sri Krishna Garga, the family priest of the Yadavas, performed the samskaras appropriate to kshatriyas for Krishna and Balarama. Sri Krishna revealed his Vishvarupa to Yashoda for the second time. He went on breaking the curd pots and stealing the butter to enrage his mother. She tied him to a mortar to prevent him from this mischief. Because of this, He became Damodara. He dragged the mortar between two trees and uprooted them. Two demons who were hiding in the trees, Dhuni and Chamu, were killed. Nalakubara and
Manigriva, two sons of Kubera, were born as these two trees and were released by Sri Krishna. In order to motivate the Gopas to move from Gokula to Vrindavana, Krishna assumed the form of crores of wolves. The Gopas became panicky at this and left for Vrindavana. At Vrindavana, Krishna killed Vatsasur, a servant of Kamsa who had come in the form of a calf. He also killed Bakasura. (A different Bakasura was later killed by Bhimasena.) Krishna wandered on the bank of Yamuna with Gopas. He noticed the snake Kaliya in the middle of the Yamuna. He danced on the head of Kaliya. Kaliya was hiding in the Yamuna out of fear from Garuda. He and his wife appealed to Krishna to save them from Garuda. Krishna assured Kaliya that Garuda would not kill him upon seeing His footprints on his hood. He sent Kaliya to Ramana dvipa. When the Gopas were on the bank of the Yamuna, a wild fire broke out in the forest. Krishna extinguished it. The demon Ugra, who had assumed the form of a poisonous tree and was spreading a foul smell all over and causing diseases to people was killed. Krishna killed seven bulls who were sons of Kalanemi born in the form of seven bulls. He married Nila.This Nila and the Nila who is one of eight queens of Krishan are one and the same.This first Nila was married by him before his Upanayana Then Dhenukasura and Pralambasura were killed. Later, Gopas moved far away from Gokula. They became hungry, so Krishna asked them to go to a nearby place where some Brahmanas were engaged in a sacrifice and ask for some food. The Gopas went there, but the Brahmanas refused to give them any food. However, the wives of the Brahmanas brought the food to them. The Gopas wanted to worship Indra, but Krishna prevented them from doing so. As a result, Indra started pouring heavy rains. Krishna lifted the Govardhana hill and protected the Gopas. Indra realized his mistake and praised Sri Krishna. He coronated Him as the king of cows. Krishna became Govinda. Krishna sported with the Gopis who had performed the Katyayani ritual to obtain Sri Krishna. He begot ten lakh male children through them. They were all known as Narayana. Krishna killed Shankhachuda, who was harassing the Gopis, and Aristasura, who was harassing the cows. Keshi and Vyomasura were also killed.
Sri Krishna Kills Kamsa Kamsa again imprisoned Vasudeva and Devaki. He sent Akrura to bring Krishna and Balarama to participate in the worship of Shiva's bow. Akrura was a gandharva by the name Kishora. Svayambhuva manu as well as Brahma were partially present in him. While Akrura was taking Krishna and balarama he saw the divine form of Krishna and Shesha form of Balarama. Upon entering Mathura, Krishna killed an arrogant washerman and snatched the garments for Himself and for Balarama. He received the services of a barber and a flower vendor. He received sandalwood paste from Trivakra. Then he went to the armory, took Shiva's bow, and broke it. Kamsa was frightened by the deeds of Krishna. He placed the huge elephant Kuvalayapeeda at the entrance and asked Chanura and Mustika to also guard the entrance. Kamsa's large army was ready as well. Krishna killed Kuvalayapida, Chanura, Mustika, and the army. Finally, he killed Kamsa. Vayu, who was present in Kamsa, entered Krishna, while the demon in him went to tamas.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Krishna deals with Jarasandha Krishna released His parents from the prison, placed Ugrasena on the throne,and asked Nanda to return to Vrindavana. He went to Sandipani with Balarama and studied the entire Vedic literature and 64 arts. There, He revived His teacher's son, who had died. He returned to Mathura and killed the demon Panchajanya, who was hiding in the sea at Prabhasa. He obtained the conch Panchajanya. Kamsa's two wives, Asti and Prasti, the daughters of Jarasandha, went to Krishna and cried before Him because of the death of their husband. Jarasandha was the demon Viprachitti reborn. He was invincible as a result of the boons given to him by Brahma, Rudra, and Durvasa. He was a devotee of Bhairava and had collected 86,000 kshatriya boys to offer as human sacrifice to Bhairava. He attacked Mathura 18 times with his 23 akshauhini army. To avoid his harassment of the citizens of Mathura, Sri Krishna built the city of Dvaraka in the sea. The distance between Jarasandha's capital and Mathura was 101 yojanas, but Narada told Jarasandha that it was 100 yojanas. Consequently, the mace Jarasandha threw dropped one yojana before Mathura, and the city was saved. This mace hit Jara, who had joined the two portions of Jarasandha's body and enabled him to survive, and Jara was killed. Jarasandha attacked Mathura again and sent Vinda and Anuvinda as messengers to Krishna. His message had a double meaning; it praised Krishna and ridiculed Him as well. Krishna came out from Mathura city with Balarama. He placed his army at the three gates of Mathura, putting Satyaki in charge of it, and He came out by the north gate. All the weapons came down to Him and Balarama at His will. Taking these, He proceeded with Daruka, His charioteer. Krishna attacked Jarasandha,and Balarama his armies. The supporters of Jarasandha (Hamsa, Dibhika, Rukmi, Bahlika, etc.) ran away. Jarasandha attacked Balarama, and the two fought bitterly. Jarasandha was hit by Balarama's plough and fainted, and Balarama arrested him. Ekalavya then shot arrows at Balarama, but Balarama was not affected by them. Krishna did not want to fight with Ekalavya Himself. He made His son Manmatha (Pradyumna) fight with him. Manmatha destroyed Ekalavya's weapons. Ekalavya was Manimanta, the leader of the Krodhavasa group of demons. He was not really a hunter.
He was the son of Devashrava, the brother of Vasudeva and was sent out of his home. The hunter Hiranyadhanu brought him up, so he became known as a hunter. Death of Pandu At the other end, Pandu sported with his wife Madri and died. At this time, Kunti was engaged in serving the guests on Arjuna's 14th birthday. Pandu was Pravaha Marut. He had gone to Indra when Indra was sporting with Sachi. This obstruction was the real reason for Pandu's death, and the curse of the ascetic Kindara was only an excuse. Both Kunti and Madri wanted to burn themselves on Pandu's funeral pyre. Madri did so, but the sages advised Kunti not to die and to look after the children. Madri was permitted to die with her husband because she had invited Ashvini deities, who were inferior to Pandu, to beget children, and this was an offense.
Kunti returned to Hastinapura with the Pandavas. Dhrtarashtra and Bhishma were silent. Vidura was happy.He was happy for two reasons 1)He could meet Pandavas.2) Dhrtarashtra and Bhishma accepted by their silence the fact that panadavas were the bonafide children of Pandu. However Duryodhana disputed it. Even though the sages of Badarikashrama said that Pandu died just seventeen days before, Duryodhana argued that Pandu had died much earlier. Vayu announced by the ethereal voice that the Pandavas were born when Pandu was alive by niyoga with the deities with Pandu's permission. Plans to Kill Bhimasena Both the Kauravas and the Pandavas received instructions on how to wield weapons from Kripacharya. While they were students, the Kauravas and Pandavas used to play. Bhimasena used to display his strength in many ways. Those who did not like him planned to kill him. Shakuni obtained from Shukracharya the poison that had come out during samudramathana and mixed it with the food given to Bhima. However, it did not affect him at all, and he easily digested it. The Kauravas constructed a building under the waters of Ganga and made Bhima sleep in it. They tied him with iron chains and threw him in the water. He went in 10,000,000 yojanas deep, cut the chains, and came up. Further , the Kauravas invited eight great snakes (Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Padma, Sankha, and Gulika) by reciting the hymn given by Shukracharya and set them on Bhima's chest when he was sleeping. Bhima threw them away. The snakes lost their teeth when they tried to bite him. Bhimasena undertook a digvijaya and defeated Shishupala, Dantavaktra, PaundrakaVasudeva, Rukmi, Ekalavya, Hansa, and Dimbhika. He then returned to Hastinapur. Sri Krishna sent Akrura to Dhrtarashtra to advise him to restrain his sons from harassing Pandavas. Accordingly Akrura went to Hastinapur and advised Dhrtarashtra .However, it did not leas to any result . Therefore, Akrura took Bhima, Arjuna, and Sahadeva to Mathura. Bhima learned gadayuddha from Balarama.He did not learn from Sri Krishna
since it involved raising his gada against Krishna, which was not proper.Balarama himself instructed certains special skills learnt from Sri Krishna Sri Krishna sent Uddhava to Gokula to console Nanda because of their separation. He gave a few hints that He was the Supreme God and that He was omniprescent.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Drona teaches Astravidya Bhima, Arjuna, and Sahadeva stayed with Sri Krishna for some time and then returned to Hastinapura. Visoka, Sri Krishna's son through Trivakra, also came with them. He became Bhima's charioteer. The Pandavas received education in the spiritual lore from Sri Vedavyasa. Drona used to live a life without gathering any resources from anybody and with minimum wants. Therefore, his wife was not able to give milk to her son Ashwatthama. She used to give him water mixed with flour instead. Once, Ashwatthama drank milk at the Kaurava camp. He then started crying for milk at home also. Therefore, Drona went to Parashurama to get a cow. Parashurama thought that Drona should be used to kill the supporters of the Pandavas. The supporters of Pandavas were deities.They had taken human form to assist God's plan to desroy the demons born on the Kauravas' side.In turn someone who was quiet strong was required to fight these from kauravas side. Parshurama though of utilizing Drona and his son Ashwathama for this purpose. Therefore he told Drona that he had no cows but could teach him the scriptures and the weapons. Drona studied under him for twelve years and then went to Drupada. Drupada had studied with Drona under Drona's father Bharadvaja. He had promised Drona half of his kingdom. However, Drupada insulted him by asking how a poor Brahamana could be a friend of a king. Drona was upset and decided to teach him a lesson. He went to Hastinapura with the intention of taking the Pandavas and Kauravas as his disciples. When he went there, they were playing outside the city. In the course of their play, their ball and a ring fell into the well. They were not able to lift them out. Bhima offered to jump into the well and bring it. In the meanwhile, Drona told them that they were Kshatriyas and that they should have been able to retrieve them by using their weapons. The boys asked Drona himself to do so. Drona brought the ball and the ring out of the well and asked the Pandavas and Kauravas to arrange for his livelihood, to which Dharmaraja agreed. They asked Drona who he was, and Drona told them to ask their grandfather Bhishma. Bhishma came to the spot and asked Drona to teach the boys astravidya. Drona told the boys that whoever first agreed to satisfy his needs would become the best among the bow wielders. Arjuna promised first. Bhima did not come forward to make the promise since he did not want to fight against elders like Bhishma. Moreover, he would not seek any favors from anyone other than God. Arjuna and all the others learned astravidya from Drona.
Karna goes to Parashurama Karna and Ekalavya also approached Drona for astravidya. However, Drona did not agree to teach them. Karna then went to Parashurama. He told Parashurama that he was a brahamana and learned from him for four years.
Once when Parashurama was sleeping on Karna's lap, an insect called Alarka pierced through his thigh. Karna started bleeding. He did not want to disturb his guru, so he endured the pain. When Parashurama got up he said no brahamana could withstand that much injury and that Karna should reveal his true self. Karna told him that he was a suta. Parashurama cursed him that he could use his weapon when he was not in combat, but in combat, he would forget all that he had learned. Ekalavya’s devotion to Drona Ekalavya had great devotion towards Drona. He had prepared a mud image of Drona and used to worship him. He was very skilled in wielding the bow. Once, he showered arrows into the mouth of a dog without hurting it and stopped its barking. When Drona was informed of this, he asked Ekalavya to cut his thumb and give it as gurudakshina. As a result of this, he would not be able to wield the bow on par with Arjuna.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Jarasandha attacked the Yadavas again. Sri Krishna came down to Karavira with Balarama and met Parashurama in an ashrama on the bank of the river Vena. Karavira was then being ruled over by Srigala Vasudeva. Parashurama took Krishna and Balarama to Gomantaka.
Bali Chakravarthi Stole kirita of Lord Sri Krishna Lord Narayana came to amukta-sthana of Ksheerasagara to receive service from the deities who were not yet liberated. Bali also came to meet Narayana. Narayana pretended to sleep and asked the deities to sleep. Taking that opportunity, Bali stole His kirita. Garuda went to Patalas, brought the kirita back, and gave it to Sri Krishna. The divine weapons of Sri Krishna and Balarama also came down. The wives of Balarama, Varunisri and Kanti, also came. Balarama enjoyed their company in Gomantaka.
Fight with Jarasandha Jarasandha encircled Gomantaka with his army. Krishna and Balarama jumped down the mountain. The mountain was pushed down eleven yojanas by the pressure of their feet.
Hamsa, Dibhika, Ekalavya, Kichaka, Sisupala, and others encircled Krishna. Sri Krishna threw arrows at them and made them run away. Jarasandha threw his mace at Balarama, and Balarama fainted. Vayu informed him through the ethereal voice that Jarasandha would be killed by a stronger person later and that Balarama must leave.
Srigala Vasudeva Killed by Krishna When Srigala Vasudeva came to know that Krishna had come to Karavira, he proceeded to fight with Him. Sri Krishna cut off his head and tore his body into two. He placed Srigala's son Shakradeva on the throne and returned to His city.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Rukmi’s initiative to arrange the swayamvara of Rukmini Rukmi the son of Bhishmaka planned to give Rukmini in marriage to Shishupala by arranging Swayamvara. Demon Ilvala was born as Rukmi.Such the son of Vahni also had entered him.He had studied Dhanurvidya from Druma and had secured the bow – Vijaya of Indra.This was equal in strength ot Gandiva and Saranga.When swayamvara was announced Jarasandha, Salva, Paundraka and Shishupala arrived.Sri Krishna also arrived seated on Garuda.When Shishupala and Dantavakra found that Krishna had arrived they pleaded with others not oppose to Krishna.After all they were originally devotees of Sri Krishna. However Jarasandha opposed it. Coronation of Sri Krishna Krishna was not duly coronated on the throne. Therefore he was not entitled for a seat in the swayamvara hall nor for any hospitality. They though if they did not provide him a seat he would go away.Kratha and Kaisika the brothers of Bhishmaka came to know of it.They took Krishna to their residence and arranged for their coronation.In the meanwhile a messenger of Indra came and advised the princes gathered to coronate Krishna. He said Indra would throw vajrayudha on them if they failed to carry out his order. Indra did not want Jarasandha, Rukmi,Salva and Shishupala to participate in the coronation of Sri Krishna.therefore he has asked them not to join. They also did not want to join.Indra sent a rich throne. Krishna made Garuda sit on the right side, Kratha , Kaisika and satyaki on left side.Then coronation bath was given using a golden pitcher.Krishna blessed Bhishmaka and said his daughter’s marriage would be auspicious.He revealed his Vishvarupa to him .Bhismaka saw infinite incarnations of Vishnu and Lakshmi in that Vishvarupa.Sri Krishna returned to Mathura.
The birth of Kalayavana Jarasandha was very much upset by this development.He said their plan was upset then.Krishna was coronated in their very presence.They thought that they should conceive of another plan to get Rukmini married to Shishupala. Salva suggested a plan. Once in presences of Krishna yadavas insulted Garga. On this Garga performed penance to shiva to get a son who would eliminate Krishna. During the penance he subsisted on iron pieces.A yavana king wanted a son. He managed to tempt Garga to sport with a Gopa woman who was a Demon and had managed the Gopis.Garga begot a dark son through this woman. He was kalayavana. Though Garga begot such a son and gave him to yavana king he felt repentant and performed penance to Vishnu. Salva said that they might utilize that kalayavana.Jarasandha felt below his dignity to seek help from others.However,Salva went and brought Kalayavana. Yadavas move to Dwaraka Krishna came to know that kalayavana would attack Mathura and harass yadavas.Therefore he thought of building a new city i.e., Dwaraka and shifting the
Yadavas from Mathura.He invited Vishvakarma to build the city. A grand city with Sudharma hall was built.Earlier the city of Kushastali was in the same place. The yadavas moved to this new city . The battle with Kalayavana Krishna went to fight kalayavana without any army. He put a snake in a jar and sent it to Kalayavana,thereby indicating that he alone could kill him. Kalayavana returned it filled with ants that killed the snake,thereby indicating a large number of ants could kill even a snake. This was the mistake on his part.Garga had secured the boon that his son would eliminate Krishna. This was fulfilled by killing the dark snake by Kalayavana. Now, Krishna could not be killed. Thus the very purpose of Kalayavana’s birth was defeated by this act. Kalayavana feverishly attacked Krishna. Krishna defeated him. However, he did not want to kill him himself. He pretended to run away., Kalayavana followed him. Krishna entered into the cave of Muchukunda and hid himself. Kalayavana kicked the sleeping Muchukunda and he was burnt down. Muchukunda’s long sleep had a background. He had helped the gods to defeat the demons.They asked him to ask for something.He asked for salvation .The gods said Lord Vishnu alone could give salvation and therefore, to ask for something else,,He asked asked for long and deep sleep.He said,if anyone disturbed him he should be burnt down.This had exactly happened to Kalayavna. Krishna came out of the cave and defeated Jarasandha,Salva,Paundraka and Shishupala and went back to Dwarka.
Rukmini’s message to Krishna Jarasandha etc again planned to arrange the marriage of Rukmini with Shishupala. Rukmini sent a message through a Brahmana that when she visited he family diety as a prilimnary to her marriage Sri Krishna should take her away.Accordingly Krishna rushed to the temple and took her away. When Jarasandha and others tried to attack Krishna, Balarama prevented them. Shishupala arrived decorated with bridegroom’s dress, and tried to attack Krishna. He was prevented by Satyaki. Krishna defeated all others. On return to Dwaraka, Krishna’s marriage was arranged with all pomp. Balarama had already married Revati. Krishna begot the son Manmatha through Rukmini. Since, Praduymna form of God was present in him he was also known as Pradyumna. Praduymna Kills Shambara Narada had told Shambara that Pradyumna would kill him.Therefore Shambara took away Pradyumna as soon he was born and threw him in the sea.A fish swallowed the child.A fisherman cut the fish and got the child.He handed it over to Shambara,Manmatha’s wife Rati was with Shambara due to a curse by Brahma,She was happy to get her husband Manmatha in the form of this child.She gave Parasurama mantea to him. With the help of this Mantra Pradyumna killed Shambara and returned to Dvaraka. Syamantakamani Satrajita had obtained Syamnatakamani from the sun.He was a good friend of the Sun. Satrajita was a greedy person.Krishna asked him to give Syamnatakamani to him in order to expose his greediness.Naturally he refused to give.Once Satrajita’s younger brother Prasena went for hunting wearing Syamnatakamani. He was killed by a lion. Satrajit thought Krishna must hace killed to take away the Syamnatakamani. Krishna went to
forest to find out the truth. HE traced the place where Prasena was killed by footprints.He also traced the fact that this lion was killed by bear. Following that clue he went into the cave of Jambuvan. There was a fight between krishna and Jambhavan, When Jambavan was exhausted he remembered his master Sri Rama.Whe he looked at Sri Krishna he saw him as Sri Rama. HE realised that Krishna was God himself. He gave Syamnatakamani to him and also his daughter Jambavati. Satrajit also realised that he had made unnecessary allegations against Sri Krishna, He gave his daughter Satyabhama in marriage to Sri Krishna , She was bhu form of gofess Lakshmi while Rukmini was of Shree form. Hamsa and Dhibika Hamsa and Dhibika though of performing Rajasuya sacrifice to create an ocassion to insult Sri Krishna. They sent a Brahmana messenger to Janardhana with the demand that Krishna should supply salt to the sacrifice as he lived on the sea shore.Krishna sent back a message he would rather give a hit by sharp weapon and invited them to Pushkara.
In the meanwhile Hamsa and Dhibika had insulted Dhurvasa by taking away his Kaupinda and other things,Durvasa went to Sri Krishna.He gave him silk kaupina.Krishna went ot Pushkara with Durvasa. Hamsa and Dhibika arrived.Vichakra and Hidimba also accompanied them.There was a seventeen akshauhini army.On the Yadava’s side there was only three akshauhini army.Balarama,Satyaki and Gada also participated in the fight. Hamsa entered into the mouth of snake called Dhritarashtra. Dibhika pulled out his out his own toungue and went into Tamas.He waited for his brother at the Tamas. Sri Krishna returned to Dwaraka.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Bhagavata dharma of Bhimsena Bhimasena strictly followed Bhagavata dharma in all his activities, This is illustrated by a few instances in this chapter. He learnt all astras bettter than all others.However, he never used them. To use the astras one has to appeal to respective dieties. The use is also for achieving certain results. Both these are against Bhagavatha dharma. He never worshipped any other deity than the Supreme God Hari.HE never opposed Hari. He never opposed the devotees of Hari and was never friendly for those who were not devotees of Hari. He never doubted Hari-Sarvotamma or Bhagavata dharma.He did not listen to the censure of Hari. He prevented such a talk. He never used his knowledge and learning for his livelihood or survival. That is why he did not reply to Yama who had appeared in the form of Yaksha in yakshaprashna context and also when he was caught by Nahusha in the form of snake. He pacified the astra of Ashvatathama and Alambusa as per God’s instructions only. Draupadi also strictly followed Bhima in respect of Bhagavata dharma.She nevere opposed Krishna. Both Bhima and Draupadi put up with the insult og stripping her garments by Dusshasana as they realised the intention of krishna to provide the garments enflessly. Draupadi accepting the offer of Dhritarastra to release the Pandavas was not against Bhagavata dharma since the whole act of dice-play was adharma.
Violation of Bhagavata dharma by others It is also noted in this context as to how others violated Bhagavatha dharma in some way or the other, Balarama was displeased with krishna in connection with syamantakamani. Arjuna also boasted that he is not as weak as Balarama or Krishna and he could rescue the children of a Brahmin. Pradyumna,Sambha,Aniruddha etc opposed the marriage of Subhadra with Arjuna against the wishes of Krishna. Nakula asked for contribution from Krishna for the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhistira. Bhishma rejected the suggestion of Parashurama to marry Amba. Devaki and Vasudeva considered Krishna as ordinary human being. Drona,Karna,Ashvatthama,Kripa also desired to eliminate Krishna, From this it is clear that excepting Lakshmi,Vayu and Sarasvati all others have entertained doubts about the Sarvottamatva of Ahri. Here Vayu stands for all Riju yogins and Sarasvati stands for their wives.Lakshmi,Vayu and Bharathi are known as Parashuklatraya.
Presentation of the skill in Astravidya Dronacharya arranged a contest for presentation og the skill of weilding weapons by his disciples,Ashvatthama and arjuna exelled all others. Karna also arrived at the place and showed his skill. Kunti did not reveal the fact that he was her son. Arjuna invited Karna for a contest. However Bhima prevented him by indicating that Karna was not a Kshatriya. To indicate this he gave a rein to Karna to suggest that he was Suta. At this Duryodhana coronated him to give the status of king. Karna’s father Adhiratha arrived. Karna prostrated at his feet.
The fight between Bhima and Duryodhana Then ,Bhima and Duryodhana started wielding the mace. The deities ,men and demons were divided in two groups supporting Bhima and Duryodhana respectively. Drona intervened through Ashvatthama and asked them to withdraw.
Drupada offers half of Kingdom to Drona Drona asked the Kauravas and Pandavas to arrest Drupada and bring him as Gurudakshina to him. Both of them went to the city of Panchala. Kauravas rushed into the city with Karna.The Pandavas remained outside. Drupada pounced on Kauravas with his army. The citizens also threw stones and sticks at them. Drupada had a boon that within one yojana around his city he would be invincible. The Kauravas ran out. Bhima and Arjuna attacked Drupada’s army. Drupada with his two sons Yudhamanyu and Uttarnauja fought the battle. Satyajut, Shikandi, Janamejaya also joined the battle, Ultimately, Arjuna arrested Drupada. Drupada offered half of his kingdom to Drona. However, Drona did not actually take it.
Birth of Draupadi Drupada undertook a sacrifice to get a son who could kill Drona and a daughter to be given to Arjuna. He invited two learned Brahmanas, gave them ten crores of cows and arranged the sacrifice, at the close of the sacrifice his queen did not come to receive the Havis Shesha, The proests became angry and pored it into the sacrificial fire,Immediately Agni came out as Drupada’s son. He was named as Dhristadhyumna as he was bold and brilliant. From the sacrifical alter Bharati came as Draupadi. Sachi, Shyamala, and Usa also were present with her, Parvati was also present.
The presence of five women in one body The presence of Parvati,Shyamala and Usha with Bharathi in the same body has a background. These four got into one body and moved before Brahma as a matter of fun. Brahma became angry and cursed them to be born as human beings thrice as they cheated him thrice being in one body.
To overcome the hardship of contact with some man other than their husbands during these births, Parvathi ,Shachi etc approached Bharatidevi also to be born with them so that nobody would dare to touch them, accordingly these were born. In the first birth these were born as daughter of Brahmana. During this birth these performed penance to Shiva. Bharathi performed the same to Vishnu present in Shiva. They were told by Shiva and Vishnu respectively in one of their human births they will live with their husbands. Later they were born as Nalanandini and Indrasena. Nalanandini was the wife of Mudgala while Indrasena was the wife of his son Maudgalya. In these two births also they were in one body, Finally , these were born as Draupadi, It is only in this birth that they met their husbands. When Sri Krishna learnt that Drupada was arrested he sent Kratavarma to congratulate Pandavas. Finding that Krishna had great affection for pandavas, the deities born as Kings and kshatriyas became the allies of Pandavas. Dhritarashtra, with great affection crowned Yudhishtira as the prince, The Bhima and arjuna conquered the kings in all directions and made them to surrender.Dhritarashtra,
Bhishma Drona and all others were surprised at the extraordinary feats performed by Bhima and Ajuna. With this happy note this chapter closes. It is hoped that the brief summary of the contents of these nine chapters of Mahabharatha Tatparyanirnaya will enable the readers to understand the text and its indepth meaning. 28-11-1998 Prof.K.T.Pandurangi Upa Kulapati Poornaprajna Vidyapeeta Bangalore – 560028
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
The episodes of Lakshagriha, Bhimasena's marriage with Hidimba, Killing Bakasura, Draupadi svayamwara, Pandavas settling down in Indraprastha are described in this chapter. The details of these episodes are well-known. Therefore the special points of religious and moral conduct highlights in Tatparya Nirnaya and its commentaries will be briefly stated here.
Kanika's wrong advice to Duryodhana
This chapter starts with instructions of Kanika an expert in the evil policies of politics to Duryodhana. This Kanika was also known as Kalinga. Probably he hailed from Kalinga region. He was a person if Bharadvaja gotra and an adviser to Shatrujna the king of Sauvira. He told Duryodhana that when the close relatives like brothers, parents, teachers, and friends are our enemies, we should talk sweet outwardly and plan for destroying them. Heretics, robbers, theives and poor persons should be employed to kill them by poison. Outwardly we should pretend to be religiously.Rituals, sacrifices etc should be performed. Taking people into confidence by these means we should hit our enemy when the time is ripe. In this way Kanika secretly advised Duryodhana to plan against Pandavas. Duryodhana approached his father Dhritarashtra and appealed to him to send out Pandavas to some other place. Initially Dhritarashtra said Pandavas are also my sons, they are well behaved, brave, they will add to the wealth and the reputation of our kingdom, and therefore, it is not proper to send them out. However, Duryodhana insisted that they should be sent out. He said he has mastered one hundred and thirty powerful hymns that will protect him from the enemies. Strong persons like Karna and Ashvatthama are on his side. He can take care of the kingdom without Pandavas. Id Pandavas continue here they will create internal dissension in the family. They will insult and neglect you as blind person. I have thought of a way to send them, There is a temple of Vishnu with Shiva in the linga form at Varnavata. He is called Jayanta. There is a festival at this temple. Pandavas are the devotees of Vishnu. They may be sent to this place indraprasta the pretext of visiting this festival. Dhritarashtra asked Pandavas to go to this place with their mother Kunti. Bhimasena initially opposed this suggestion as he suspected some foul play behind it. However, he had to obey his brother. When they were about to leave Vidura gave them a hint of some calamity through the fire in a secret language.
Lakshagraha Duryodhana had arranged a house prepared by lac outwardly well decorated through Purochana. This Purochana was Prahasta in his earlier birth at the time of Ramayana. When Vidura came to know it, he secretly arranged an underground channel for this house. Pandavas lived there for sometime. Purochana's sister came with her five children in the pretext of serving Pandavas. Her plan was to give poison to Pandavas while serving the food. Realising this Bhimasena used to take this food first and test it. No poison could affect him. One day she mixed the poison in food and gave it. Bhimasena took the whole
food mixed with poison and managed that others were not affected by it. Purochana's sister and her children slept. The house was put on fire. Bhimasena escaped through the underground channel with his mother and brothers. Bhimasena took his mother and brothers on his shoulders and arms and went out of the burning house. He traveled throughout the night and reached the forest in which the demon Hidimba lived. Hidimba found out by the very smell that some human beings have come. He sent his sister to kill and bring them. However, Hidimba was attracted by the personality of Bhimasena. She assumed a beautiful form and approached him. In her earlier birth she was an apsara. She tried to become the spouse of Indra and compete with Sachi. Consequently she was cursed by Sachi to be born as deamon. Now she desired to marry Bhima and get out of Daemon’s life. Still earlier she had performed and had a secured a boon from Bharati that she would enjoy the benefit of contact with Vayu and get out of her demon life. There was an avesha of Bharati in her to provide this privilege When she approached Bhima, he hesitated a little to agree to her request. He thought it is not proper to marry before his elder brother's marriage. Hidimba was angry that his sister became friendly with Bhimasena instead of killing him for his food. He pounced upon Bhimasena. They bitterly fought and ultimately Hidimba was killed. After killing him, Bhima continued his journey. Hidimba followed him and requested Kunti and Bhima again and again to agree to her request. At this juncture Sri Vedavyasa arrived. He advised Bhima to marry Hidimba. He married and sported with her for about six months. They got a powerful son. He became known as Ghatothkacha as his head was without any hairs and like a pot when he was born. He got vertical hairs later. Bhima asked Hidimba to go. She left with the promise that she would come with her son whenever he remembered her.
Pandavas went to the ashram of Salihotra. He taught them Veda, Vedanga and political science. They continued their journey and went through Matsya, Trigarta, Panchala and Kichaka regions. They were dressed as Brahmanas .Sri Vedavyasa met them again and asked them to go to Ekachakranagara and stay there for sometime. He took them to a Brahmanas house in that city. Pandavas had to live by bhikshatana. Dharmaraja asked them to collect the food from Vaisya householders only. They used to carry a huge jar place it in the foreyard of the house and stand in silence. They never expressly asked for Bhiksha. Dharmaraja had asked Bhima not to go. Arjuna and other brothers only were going for bhiksha. Dharmaraja thought if Bhima goes he will be identified by his personality and "hum" Kara as Bhima and Kauravas may discover them. When Bhima went earlier for a few days he used to get bhiksha by "hum" Kara only. In the course of time, Pandavas heard the crying of the Brahmana family in whose house they were staying. On enquiry they found that they were required to offer a huge quantity of food and a person to daemon Bakasura who had made it a condition for the people living in Ekachakranagara. O hearing the plight of that Brahmana, Kunti deputed Bhima to go with the food and take Bakasura to task. She was confident that Bhima would destroy him. According to his mother's instruction, Bhimasena went with a cartful of food and challenged Bakasura. In the fight with him he tore him in two pieces and handed at the gate of the city. The citizens were happy and profusely honored Bhimasena.
Sri Vedavyasa asked Pandavas to move further from Ekachakranagara. He informed that Draupadi Svayamwara is announced and they may go there. Since, Pandavas were moving the guise of Brahmanas the other Brahmanas also proposed to go to svayamvara and enjoy a big feast. When Drupada had heard that the Pandavas were burnt down at Varnavata, he was very unhappy. He had a son Dhristadyumna and a daughter Draupadi. He had obtained these two by performing Putrakameshti ritual. He wanted to give his daughter Draupadi to Arjuna by marriage. Though he had heard that Pandavas were burnt down, he was not fully convinced of it. He hoped that Arjuna is alive somewhere and will arrive if svayamwara of Draupadi is announced. Sri Krishna also knew that Pandavas were not burnt down. However, on hearing the news of the burning of their house, he went to Hastinavati, to offer his condolence to Dhritarashtra. He had to return to Dvaraka as the news of the death of Satrajita came to him .He returned to Dwaraka. Later on hearing the announcement of Draupadi svayamwara he went to the city of Drupada along with other yadavas. However, he had told Yadavas that their visit was only to see the svayamwara, but not to participate in it. In view of this Krishna he and Balarama did not participate in svayamwara. On their way to the city of Drupada, Pandavas reached the bank of river Ganga at midnight. This disturbed the Gandharva chitrarath who was sporting in the water. He attacked Pandavas. Arjuna countered it forcefully. Chitrarath surrendered. Arjuna taught him agneyastra. He accepted adrishyavidya from him.This was not an exchange on equal basis. Agneyastra is much superior to adarshya vidya. Therefore Agneyastra was given as a gift and adrishyavidya was received as an offering. Gandharva suggested Arjuna that sage Dhaumya to be taken as a family priest. Pandavas agreed and took him as family priest. At Drupada's city a grand svayamwara pedal was put up. Duryodhana, Karna, shishupala, Jarasandha etc large number of kings desirous of seeking the hand of Draupadi were present. Pandavas were sitting among Brahmanas. Dhristadyumna announced the terms to win the hand of Draupadi. A fish was tied to the branch of a tree. Its reflection was to be seen in the water kept below. The participants in svayamwara were required to hit the fish looking down its reflection in the water. He gave a bowl and five arrows. First Shishupala tried and failed. Then, Jarasandha, Shalya tried and failed. In the case of Karna a ticklish point is raised. According to North India recession of Mahabharatha Draupadi remarked that "Naham Variyam Sutham" I do not like to marry a charioteer. On the other hand when Arjuna asks Dhristadyumna whether a Brahmana can participate in the svayamwara contest, Dhristadyumna replies that "Brahmano Vatha Rajanyo Vaishyo va shudra aeva va?" Whetehr one is Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya or Shudra if he can wield the bow and hit the mark, I shall give my sister. From this it is clear that Karna lost the chance by his incapacity bit not on the ground of his caste. The North Indian version seems to be interpolation. Finally Arjuna succeeds in hitting the mark and qualifies himself to seek the hand of Draupadi. After the event the usual fight among claimants takes place and Arjuna defeats them all. When
Pandavas return home and inform Kunti about their gain, another ticklish situation arises. Without knowing the nature of the gain, Kunti tells her sons that "you five share it”. How could five brothers share one wife? This problem was solved by Sri Vedavyasa who arrived at that time. He informed Drupada, that the Pandavas are really Yama, Vayu, Indra and Ashwini Kumaras born as men. The wives of these are present in the body of Draupadi. Therefore, the marriage with Draupadi is really the marriage with their respective wives. With the grace of Vedavyasa Drupada saw their wives in the person of Draupadi and prostrated at the feet of Vedavyasa. The marriage was organized in a splendid way by Drupada. Vidura informed Dhritarashtra about this marriage and advised him to bring Pandavas back to Hastinavati. Bhishma and Drona also advised him in the same way. He invited the Pandavas to come. They stayed in Dhritarashtra’s palace for some days and then moved to Kunti's residence.
Pancha Patitva of Draupadi The way in which the Pandavas dealt with Draupadi is quite interesting. In the person of Draupadi four women viz shyamala, Bharathi, Sachi and Usher were present. These were the wives of Yama, Vayu, Indra and Ashwini Kumaras who were now born as Pandavas. When Dharmaraja was in contact with Draupadi, Shyamala used to be actively present and others used to be in dormant state. Similarly when Bhimasena was in contact with Draupadi, Bharati used to be actively present and others in a dormant state. This process continued in other cases also. This avoided the overlapping of the contacts of these couples. The physical personalities of the wives were one but their actual presence was relative to their husbands. However, in the case of Vayu and Bharati, these were exclusively present when Bhima was in contact with Draupadi and were also present along with others when others were in contact. However, there was no overlapping of these two and the respective others so far as the contact is concerned. It only means that Vayu and Bharati were never dormant. The whole set up seems to be beyond human logic and human understanding. That is why it is called atimanusha. Duryodhana had married Bhanumathi, the daughter of the king of Kashi even before Draupadi Svayamwara. She was Alakshmi Jyeshta born at the time if Samudramathana before the birth of Lakshmi. She was a representative of inauspiciousness. The differences between Duryodhana and Pandavas were growing. Therefore, Dhritarashtra and Pandavas were growing. Therefore, Dhritarashtra thought of settling Pandavas in a different place giving a portion of Kingdom to them a new capital city Indraprastha was built. Dharmaraja was duly coronated. Bhima was coronated as Yuvaraja.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Benevolent administration of Pandavas This chapter begins with the description of the benevolent administration of Pandavas in Indraprastha. The portfolios allotted by Pandavas among themselves are quite interesting. Yudhishtira took charge of performing sacrifices, bestowing gifts, hospitality to sages etc. Bhimasena took charge of the defense, education in spiritual knowledge, maintenance of the
Varnashrama duties etc. Draupadi looked after women’s welfare, welfare of the servants, supervision of the treasury and helping women developing devotion to the Supreme God Vishnu. Arjuna looked after foreign relations. However, in the case of Jarasandha etc strong enemies Bhima used to keep watch. Nakula and Sahadeva looked after the welfare of the army and the political policy of sandhi , vigraha etc. During the administration of Pandavas, particularly, that of Bhimasena, there was no poverty, no premature death, no diseases, no body transgresses varnashrama duties, and no body opposed the Supremacy of God Vishnu. People had no need to meet the king for their needs, since all their needs fully satisfied. They met the king to have his darshana only. After narrating the good administration of Pandavas certain family details are i.e.Yudhishtira married Devaki the daughter of Shishupala. She was Shyamala the wife of Yama in her original form. He begot a son viz. Suhotra. Bhima married Kaali the daughter of the king of Kashi. The Kaali was Bharati herself. When Jarasandha found the Kaali garlanded Bhima, he went on abusing Vishnu and praising Shiva and attacked Bhima. It was a double attack, an attack on the Supremacy of Gods Vishnu and an attack on Bhima physically. Bhima had to first defeat Jarasandha in respect of the first attack. The Vedas declare the Vishnu is supreme. Even in Saivagamas Vishnu is described as supreme. The Buddha is also an incarnation of Vishnu. The preceptor of Charvakas viz. Brihaspati claims Vishnu as his preceptor. Vishnu bestows liberation to all. On the other hand Shiva ran away when Bhasmasura confronted him the poison gulped by Shiva made his neck dark. From these facts it is clear that Shiva is not supreme. Once at Hastinavati when I was proceeding to worship Vishnu Ganga obstructed me. I pushed her with my left hand. Once Shiva came in the form of tiger perusing Parvati who had taken the form of a cow to test me. I hit him with my mace and he went into a linga which is now known as Vyaghralinga. Shiva appeared in the form of a Brahmana at Kedara and debated with me about the supremacy of God .He was defeated and entered into a linga. That is why the devotees of Vishnu are prohibited from going to Kedara. Bhimasena gives these details to impress upon Jarasandha that even the devotees of Vishnu are so strong that there is no need to establish the supremacy any further. Silencing Jarasandha in this way in respect of the Supremacy of Vishnu Bhimasena won
the first round of the battle. Then he threw Jarasandha in the water of Ganga. Jarasandha ran away. Bhima returned to Indraprastha with Kaali the daughter of the king of Kashi. Bhima begot a son Sarvatrata through Kaali.
Duryodhana Studies under Balarama At Dwaraka Sri Krishna killed Shatadanva to get Symantakamani from him. However it was with Akrura. Krishna knew it, but still made it an excuse to kill him. Balarama was upset by it and went to Videha region. HE stayed there for five years. Duryodhana desired to take advantage of this seeming difference between Krishna and Balarama. He became the disciple of Balarama and studied gadayuddha under him He asked Balarama to give his sister Subhadra to him in marriage. He made him to take an oath to give Subhadra holding his hand marked by plough. Subhadra was Trijata in the earlier birth. As a result of her service to SIta she was now born as the sister of Krishna
Eight queens of Shri Krishna Krishna married Kalindi the sister of yamuna. He married Nila by controlling seven bulls simultaneously. Shri Krishna married Mitravrinda defeating her brothers Vinda and Anuvinda. He also married Bhadra and Lakshana, The condition for seeking hand of Lakshana was more difficult than Draupadi. The aim of the arrow was placed reverting it and the arrow had to move above and hit it moving back. Jarasandha, Duryodhana etc failed. Arjuna tried but deliberately did not hit it. He knew that she was to be married by Shri Krishna. Bhima did not even look at the bow out of high regard to Shri Krishna. These marriages resulted in Krishna having eight queens viz Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Nila, Mitravrinda, Bhadra and Lakshana. The first two were full incarnations of goddess Lakshmi. The others had only the avesha of Lakshmi.
Ascharya and Dhanya Duryodhana performed a sacrifice. Many kings and dignitaries participated in it. They desired to see the newly built Dwaraka. They were received at Raivata hill. Krishna welcomed them at this stage Narada arrived. He greeted Krishna as 'Ascharya' and 'Dhanya'. Krishna enquired what he means by these expressions. Narada explained that 'Ascharya' means you alone are supreme and 'Dhanya' means all others are under your control and you sustain them. Narada explained the way in which he discovered this fact. Narada said: once I saw a deity in the Kurma form in the river Ganga. I told him that there is no one who is superior to you. He said Ganga is superior to me. Ganga said Varuna is superior to her. Varuna said Prthivi i.e., Uma. Uma said Shiva, Sesha and Garuda. They said Brahma is superior to them. He said Rama is superior. Rama is abhimani diety of Vedas. She said my Yagnabhimano form Yajna is superior to me. She said my lord Shri Krishna is superior to me and to all. Narada tells Krishna that I greeted you as Ascharya and Dhanya discovering this fact from these deities. Krishna said there is one more form of Rama viz.Dakshina. She is a part of my very personality. That is why I am called Ardhanarayana. I am superior to her. This Dakshina Devi is Rukmini. The three forms of Lakshmi. Viz, Vedhabhimani Rama, Yajnabhimani Yagna and
Dakshinabhimani Dakshina are the forms of one and the same Lakshmi. They are equal. The superiority of the second and the third forms is stated keeping in mind only their placement. Vedhabhimani form is outside, Yajnabhimani is on the lap of the God and Dakshinabhimani is the very part of the body. Narada told Kunti and others that. Shri Krishna is all powerful. Krishna demonstrated it by taking away the weapons of Bhishma, Drona, Karna, and Kripa etc all within a moment. Bhima did not take his weapon against Krishna as he never opposed God. He was just thrown away from his chariot. This was all a play to realize the all powerfulness of God .Narada praised Rukmini and gave parijata flower to her. This upset Satyabhama. However, Krishna assured her that he would get the very Parijata tree for her.
Narakasura vadha Indra deities approached Krishna with an appeal to kill Narakasura. Krishna left for Pragjyotisapura with Satyabhama. Narakasura was born from Varatha form of God through Dharadevi. He was invincible as a result of boon from Brahma. His ministers were also similarly blessed. He had built three tiers fronts viz. Giridurga, Jaladurga and Pasadurga. The last was prepared by Mura with six thousand ropes. Peetha, Mura, Nikumbha, Hayagriva and Panchanga were the ministers of Narakasura. He had forcibly taken away the Swetachatra of Varuna, Manishikara from Indra, and the ear-rings of Aditi. Krishna attacked Prag-jyotisha city, destroyed the three forts. Killed the five ministers, and thirty-five sons of these ministers. Narakasura came out of the city and attacked Sri Krishna with his mace Shatagni. Krishna swallowed the mace and pretended as if he is exhausted. Satyabhama took the Sarnga bow and destroyed the chariot and the weapons of Narakasura. She also pretended to be exhausted. Krishna killed Narakasura with his chakra. He entered into the palace. Narakasura mother Bhudevi returned the ear-rings of Aditi. Bhagadatta the son of Narakasura was coronated as a successor of Narakasura. Krishna took six thousand elephants and other wealth and sent it to Dwaraka. The big elephant Supratika was left for Bhagadatta. Krishna found the sixteen thousand girls imprisoned in his palace by Narakasura. These were Agniputras in their original form. They desired to marry Sri Krishna and were born as girls. Krishna arranged to send them Dwaraka. These girls have the avesha of Lakshmi and therefore are eligible for the contact with Shri Krishna. Krishna took back Manishikara of Indra and Swetachatra of Varuna and went to Indraloka. He gave the earrings to Aditi. Krishna sported with Satyabhama in Nandana garden. She saw Parijata tree at Nandana and desired to have it. Krishna removed it and placed it on Garuda. Sachi was upset by it. Indra together with other deities attacked Krishna and Satyabhama. Satyabhama herself took the Shranga bow and cut the weapons of Kubera. Garuda threw Varuna in the sea. Shiva with Nandi was also thrown out. Indra threw his Vajrayudha at Krishna. It was prevented by his left hand by Shri Krishna Indra surrendered. Krishna returned to Dwaraka. Planted Parijata and Manishikara in the foreyard of Satyabhama's house. He married the sixteen thousand girls bought from Narakasura's palace. He begot ten sons and one daughter from each of them. Among these sons,
Satyabhama begot a son viz. Bhani. He was originally one of the twelve suns viz. Savita, Rukmini begot the sons of Pradyumna and Charudeshna. Originally he was Ganesha. Pradyumna and Samba undertook digvijayayatra and went to Patala, defeated Vasuki. They defeated Maya also who came in their way. They defeated Jayanta and Vrishaba in the Indraloka.
Sunda and Upasunda Sunda and Upasunda the sons of Nikumba a descendent of Hiranyakashipu were considerably troubling the sages. These two had obtained a boon from Brahma that they should not be killed by anybody excepting the very brother. They thought they will never have any enmity to kill each other. When these brothers started harassing the ascetics. Brahma created a beautiful woman Tilottama. She was so charming that even Siva assumed four daces to look at her all around. She appeared before Sunda and Upasunda. Both were captivated by her charm and started fighting to get her. Ultimately they were killed by each other.
Arjuna's Tirtha yatra
Narada instructed the Pandavas to be with Draupadi by the rotation of one year each instead of a rotation by one day. Accordingly they lived with her by the rotation of a year. When a couple is in privacy no one is expected to disturb them However, once Arjuna had to enter the private chamber of Yudhishtira when he was engaged in a private conversation with Draupadi. This is because, a Brahman’s cow was to be protected and Arjuna had to take his bow that was kept in Yudhishtira’s chamber. Consequently, he had to undertake Tirtha yatra for a year. In the course of his pilgrimage he came across Ulupi a widow girl of Naga race at his request he begot a son Iravan through her. The Nagas declared her and her son as outcaste. However, Indra took care of the both in Indraloka. Then, Arjuna went to Pandya country. He married Chitrangadha the daughter of Pandya king. According to north Indian recusion of Mahabharatha, Chitrangadha is the daughter of Chitravahana the king of Manipura. Arjuna begot a son Babruvahana through Chitrangadha. He was given in adoption to the Pandya king by way of Putrika putra dharma. The Pandya king Virasena was an amsa of Surya of Tvasta form. Chitrangadha was originally Sachi Devi. Arjuna proceeded to Prabhasa. On the way, at Kanyatirtha, he was caught by five crocodiles. He dragged the five out of water. These were originally five apsaras and were cursed to be born as crocodiles by a Brahmana. These apsaras viz. Vargas, Saurabheyi. Samichi, Budbuda and Lata were in crocodile form in five lakes viz. Agastya, Saubhadra, Pauloma, Karandhama and Bharadvaja. The Brahmana had told them that when some strong man drags them out, they will get their original form. Accordingly, when they were dragged out by Arjuna they were releases from the crocodile form.
Subhadra parinaya From Prabhasa Arjuna proceeded towards Dwaraka. He took the form of a Sanyasi and sat under a tree on Raivata hill. Balarama saw him and asked Krishna to arrange accommodation for this sanyasi near kanyagara during chaturmasya and provide all facilities to him. Krishna pretended to caution Balarama by saying that it is not safe to provide accommodations for this young sannyasins near Kanyagara. Balarama said that the sannyasins are above temptations and one should not question the bonafides of an ascetic. Subhadra was asked to serve sannyasin. One day Balarama and all others went to Pindoddhara Kshetra. There was a big festival. Sanyasi did not go as he was not to leave the place until the chaturmasya was over. Subhadra also remained as she had to serve him. Subhadra enquired sannyasin whether he knew the where-abouts of Arjuna who is on a pilgrimage. Sanyasi revealed his identity as Arjuna. He proposed that they should marry by Gandharva way. She said that without Krishna's consent and blessing she cannot proceed in the matter. At this juncture Krishna arrived with his parents. Indra, Satyaki, Narada etc also arrived. The marriage was celebrated. Krishna left his chariot for Arjuna and returned to Pindoddhara Kshetra. Arjuna left the place with Subhadra. The security guards of the city tried to prevent him. Viprithu who was in charge of the security was already secretly instructed by Krishna not to prevent Arjuna. Subhadra herself was taking the chariot ahead. Balarama came to know about it. Balarama was enraged. However Krishna pacified Balarama and other Yadavas. Arjuna came to Indraprastha with Subhadra. Draupadi and his brothers were very happy to receive them.
Pandavas begot five sons viz. Prativindya, Srutasoma, Srutakirti, Srutanika ,Srutakriya. These were originally Visva devas. These had the avesha of the five Gandharvas viz. Chitrarath, Abhitamra, Kishora, Gopala and Bala . Abhimanyu was born after Prativindya and Srutasoma. Originally he was Budha. He had also the avesha of Chandra.
Khandava dahana One day Krishna and Arjuna went to Khandava forest with Satyabhama and Subhadra. Agni appeared before them in the form of Brahmana and appealed for food. He said he needs the whole of this forest as his food. This forest belongs to Indra. He is obstructing me. Agni had tried to burn this forest seven times. However, Takshaka was living in this forest prevented him with the support of Indra. Agni brought chakra from Narayana at Badri and gave it to Sri Krishna. This was already once obtained by Sri Krishna. This was already once obtained by Sri Krishna at Gomantaka. Agni Procured Gandiva bow from Varuna and gave it to Arjuna. He also gave white horses, chariot and the flag with the emblem of Hanuman. Arjuna encircles the entire Khandavavana with his arrows and saw that no one went out of it; Krishna and Arjuna destroyed the whole forest and offered it to Agni. Indra surrendered. Maya who was in that forest appealed to Arjuna to save him. Arjuna let off him.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Sri Krishna rescues a Brahmana's children Maya built a beautiful hall for Yudhishtira. He had collected the valuable gems and other material from the hall of king Vrishaparva built on Mainaka near Bindu sarovara. He had also brought the original gada of Vayu and gave it to Bhimasena. On a day of sun eclipse, Krishna went to Samanta panchaka for a bath with his wives and children. The five ponds at Kurukshetra constructed by Parasurama to offer Pitrutarpana after destroying Kshatriya are known as Samanta panchaka. Nandagopa, Yashoda and Pandavas also went there. Vasudeva performed a sacrifice on this occasion. Krishna performed Asvamedhayaga at Dwaraka within one day only. Krishna himself was Dikshita for this sacrifice. On this occasion a Brahmana arrived with tears in his eyes. He told that his children die the very moment they are born. Arjuna offered to rescue his children. Krishna doubted his ability. Arjuna said if I am not able to rescue the children, I will jump into the fire. Arjuna encircled Brahmana's house with his arrows at the time of her delivery. However, the child was taken away by some invisible spirit and only the cries of the child were heard. Arjuna went round the regions of Yama, Indra Agni, Soma, Vayu, Varuna etc and did not find the child. He returned and offered to jump into the fire in the presence of Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna took the Brahmana and Arjuna with him and moved in a big chariot towards north crossing the seven seas. He cut the deep darkness with his chakra across ghandodaka and went to his original place Anastasia. HE entered into his original form asking Brahmana and Arjuna to
remain outside. He brought the children of Brahmana out. Nanda, Sunanda etc attendees of Vishnu used to be born as the children of the Brahmana .Krishna returned to Dvaraka and gave the children to Brahmana. Sri Krishna killed Dhantavakra and his brother Viduratha. Arjuna asked Shri Krishna to describe the worlds through which they went while moving towards Anantasana. Shri Krishna explained the same as under: Jambudvipa, Lavanasamudra, Plakshadvipa, Iksusamudra, Shalmalidvipa, Surasamudra, Kushadvipa, Sarpisamudram, Kraunchadvipa, Dadhisamudra, Shakadvipa, Kshirasamudra, Pushkaradvipa, and Suddhodasamudra. He also gave the measurement of these. The total area is stated to be two crores fifty three and half lakh yojanas. The Look-alike is situated between Vajralepa and anatomies. On another occasion Narada described fourteen worlds to Yudhishtira as under: Bhu, Antariksha, Svarga, maha, Jana, Tapah and Satya seven above and Atala, vitala, Sutala Talatala, Mahatala, Rastala, Patala seven below.
Yudhishtira asked Narada why his father Pandu has no place in Indraloka while Harischandra has it. Narada replied that Harischandra performed Rajasuya yaga. Your father has already expresses his desire that his son should perform this yaga. Yudhishtira thought of performing Rajasuya sacrifice. He consulted his brothers and also sent a messenger to Sri Krishna. At the same time the relatives of the sixteen thousand wives of Krishna also sent a messenger informing the disturbing news that Jarasandha is planning to kill and offer to Siva twenty two thousand and eight hundred kings. They appealed to Krishna to rescue these kings. On hearing this Shri Krishna went to Indraprastha encouraged them to undertake Rajasuya yaga. Rajasuya yaga duly performed will enable the Rijuyogas to attain the status of Brahma. Those who are not eligible to this status will attain better position than his equals in the liberated state, that is to say, they will enjoy more ananda. King Pandu belongs to Maruts group. Among forty nine maruts, seven are important. Pandu though he belongs to Marut group and originally he is one of the seven important Maruts i.e., Paravaha, he is not able to attain the higher status than Harischandra as he showed dis-respect to Indra and was cursed by him to be born as a man. However, Indra told him that he will attain his die status by performing Rajasuya. That is why Pandu desires that his son should perform Rajasuya.
Jarasandha Vadha Shri Krishna told Yudhishtira that Bhimasena is the most appropriate person to lead this Yaga. Jarasandha will oppose this yaga. He has to be first killed. Bhima should be departed to kill him. Bhima readily agreed to proceed in the matter. Shri Krishna proposed that he himself accompanied by Bhima and Arjuna will go to kill Jarasandha. Jarasandha will consider Arjuna as inferior to him, he is afraid of me, therefore he will choose to fight with Bhima only and will be killed by him. Krishna further told Yudhishtira that he himself did not kill Jarasandha when he attacked Mathura only to provide an oppurtunity to a Vishnubhakta to fight against a Sivabhakta and reveal the superiority of Vishnu-bhakta. This removed the fear in the mind of Yudhishtira .Krishna Bhima and Arjuna left for Magadha country.
A group of five hills viz. Vaihara, Varaha, Vrishaba, Rishi and chaityaka surrounded Girivraja. Jarasandha used to be worship one of these hills i.e. chaityaka since it looked like Shivalinga. This was destroyed by Krishna ,Bhima and Arjuna. Then ,they entered into the city of Jarasandha through the path made by breaking the prakara wall. This new way was made since,one is not expected to enter into enemy's city through the main gate. They broke the drums the sound of which represented the glory of Jarasandha. They snatched the flowers, sandal paste etc from the shops in the city and entered into Jarasandha palace by making a breakaway for them. They had dressed like Brahmanas. They refused the hospitality offered by Jarasandha. He asked them as to who they were? Why they broke Sivalinga, broke the drum and snatched the flower etc. These acts do not befit the Brahmanas. On this Krishna replied "we are not Brahmanas. We are your enemies. You have undertaken a Bhairavayaga and propose to kill innocent kings and animals. We have come to punish you; Jarasandha said I cannot stop my Bhairavayaga.
You have to fight with me. Jarasandha proposed that he would fight with Bhimasena. A fight between the two with mace started. It was conducted outside the city. Both displayed their skill in Gadayuddha. Their gada were broken into pieces, and then they started fighting with fists. The fight continued for fifteen days, Bhima firmly caught his head, placed the foot on his trunk and broke him in two pieces. Krishna gave a hint as to how to break him by cutting grass blade and throwing the two pieces in opposite direction. Bhima knew his secret. However, Krishna gave the hint to enthuse him Jarasandha's son Sahadeva made peace with them by offering his sister and the chariot to Bhimasena. Bhima received his sister for his brother Sahadeva. Nakula had already married the daughter of Madra King. These two wives of Nakula and Sahadeva were originally ushas wife of Ashwini. This Ushas is different from Usha the wife of Aniruddha. With the death of Jarasandha the main hurdle for the Rajasuya of Pandavas was removed. Rajasuya yaga Sri Vedavyasa arrived and instructed Yudhishtira to make all preparations. He instructed Bhimasena to undertake digvijayayatra. The benefit of the sacrifice goes to that person who plays the principal role. Bhima was eligible for the benefit of Rajasuya viz. the position of Brahma. Therefore, Sri Vedavyasa asked Bhima to play the principal role by undertaking digvijayayatra. Arjuna pleaded that he has the chariot, bow etc necessary requirements for digvijayayatra and he is also interested in digvijayayatra. However, Sri Vedavyasa said Kichaka; Karna etc will give tributes to Bhima without much grumbling, therefore, he should lead digvijayayatra. He directed Arjuna to go to Saptadvipa, Patala etc regions and bring tributes. Bhima went to Virata kingdom and collected tributes from Kichaka. Then, he went to Cedi kingdom collected tributes from Shishupala. Kunti's sister Srutasrava was the mother of Sishupala. She advised him to pay the tributes. Bhima collected the tributes from Paundraka Vasudeva and Karna. He went to the city of Banasura and collected the vast wealth from him. Nakula and Sahadeva who were sent to different direction returned and reported the tributes won by them.
Arjuna defeated the tribal rules like abhira and nisada. He obtained tributes from Bhagadatta. He wandered over nine varshas viz Kimpurusha, Harivarsa, Ilavrita, Bhadrasva, Ketumala, hiranmya, Ramyaka, kuru and Bharata varsa itself. He brought huge tributes from this area. He also went into seven patalas won the demons and the deities and brought the tribute even from Bali Chakravarti. The Rajasuya sacrifice was started. Yajnavalkya, Paila and Dhaumya and Susama played the role of Adhvaryu, Hota and Udgata. Sri Vedavyasa himself became Brahma. Dharmraja was Yajamana and Draupadi was Yajamana Patni Brahma, Rudra, Indra etc deities, and Bhishma Drona etc elders. The entire family of Dhritarashtra, Balarama and Yadavas were present. Rukmini and Satyabhama were also specially invited. At the sacrificial pendal, the debates on philosophical issues were arranged. Dharmraja asked Bhishma as to whom the agrapuja be offered. Bhishma suggested that it should be offered
to Sri Krishna. Dharma duly offered agrapuja to Shri Krishna. This upset Shishupala. He talked ill if Shri Krishna. Bhimasena was enraged by this and proceeded to kill Shishupala. Bhishma restrained .He was destined to be killed by Shri Krishna. Therefore, Bhima did not proceed further. Shishupala declared to fight against Krishna. He invited the other kings also to join him. Sri Krishna pushed the other kings behind and killed Shishupala with his Chakrayudha. After the sacrifice was over and all guests returned, Dharmaraja was chatting with Sri Krishna at the beautiful built by Maya. Duryodhana arrived at the hall. The walls of this hall were so transparent that the persons sitting on the other side were visible and presence of the wall itself was not felt. Consequently Duryodhana hit at the wall when he proceeded. The floor that was studded with blue gems was so soft and clean that Duryodhana felt there was water and he rolled his clothes to avoid the water. In another part of hall where there was actual water, he failed noticed it and fell. At this confusion of Duryodhana, Bhima, Draupadi and all others laughed. Duryodhana felt deeply humiliated. Duryodhana and Sakuni returned to Hastinavati with a burning heart started and to take revenge vengeance against Pandavas, particulary against Bhima and Draupadi. The dice play Sakuni suggested that they should invite Dharmaraja for a dice-play and rob all his wealth and kingdom. Dhritarashtra first hesitated to agree. However, when Duryodhana pressurized him he sent Vidura to invite Dharmaraja for the dice-play. When Vidura came to invite Dharmaraja for dice-play Shri Krishna was not at Indraprastha. He had left for Dwaraka on receiving the information that Salva proposes to attack Dwaraka. Dharmaraja agreed to go to Hastinavati for playing the dice in spite of the opposition by his brothers and Draupadi. Vidura also cautioned him against the dangers of the diceplay. Pandavas went to dice-play hall with Bhishma etc elders. Dhritarashtra arrived with Vidura. Kauravas arrived with Shakuni and Karna. Bhishma etc elders did not like the idea of dice-play. However they kept quite. Dharmaraja proposed his entire wealth as a bet for the play and lost it. Then, he went on proposing Nakula, Sahadeva, Arjuna, and Bhima as bet and lost all of them. Finally he proposed Draupadi and himself also as bet and lost. Duryodhana sent his
charioteer Pratikaamin to bring Draupadi to the dice play hall. Draupadi told him that it is not proper for her to come to the hall where elders are present. Pratikaamin returned. Duryodhana sent Dussasna to bring Draupadi. HE forcibly dragged her to the hall. She asked the question whether Yudhishtira lost her before he himself became a slave. No body answered this question .Bhishma said, since Sharma raja himself has accepted the fact he lost Draupadi, we are helpless in the matter. Draupadi told Bhishma and other elders that dice-play is a deceitful programmed. It is adharma. Therefore, victory in this is no victory. Consequently Dharmaraja himself is not defeated. Therefore, how can I be treated as a slave? You elders are not condemning it as
adharma. You are not giving your ruling on what is dharma and what is adharma. Therefore, this assembly is not an assembly of Wiseman at all. Bhishma etc elders kept quite even after this exhortation, since, kali had entered into them. However, Vidura declared that Draupadi has not become a slave. The adharma has taken over the entire assembly. Bhima said the hands of Dharmaraja are burnt. Arjuna appealed to him not to do so. Duryodhana displayed asked Dusyasana to take away the cloths of Pandavas. They removed the same and were clad with deer skin. Dusyasana started to drag the saree of Draupadi. She appealed to Shri Krishna to save her honor. The saree went on extending. A series of sarees appeared one after the other. Dusyasana was exhausted and collapsed. Bhima looked at an iron rod to hit Duryodhana. There were cries of foxes. This was very inauspicious. Dhritarashtra asked Vidura as to how to ward it off. Vidura said you first release Draupadi. Dhritarashtra offered three boons to Draupadi. She asked him to release Pandavas and their property. She did not ask anything for herself. Strictly speaking she had not asked for any boons. The relatives of a dice player have a right to ask for the return of the lost property. She had exercised that right. Even if it is taken as boon she was within her limits. A Kshatriya should not ask for more than three boons. She had asked for only too boons. She did not ask anything or herself as she was strictly following Bhagavata dharma. Dhritarashtra released Pandavas and returned the kingdom. Duryodhana was very angry. Shakuni suggested that Pandavas be invited for the diceplay again. Dhritarashtra invited again. This time the bet proposed by the Kauravas was different. If Pandavas were defeated they were required to live in the forest for twelve years and live in-cognito for one year. During this last year, if one of them was found, then, they were required to live in the forest for twelve years again. Dharmaraja was defeated again and Pandavas had to go to the forest. They went out of Hastinapur through the main gate Vardhamana. Vidura asked Kunti to stay with him. The people of Hastinapur followed Pandavas up to the banyan tree on the bank of river Ganga. Then Pandavas proceeded to Kamyakavana.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Pandavas arrived at Kamyakavana. It was place of Kirmira. He was the younger brother of Bakasura and a friend of Hidimba. When he came to know that Bhima had arrived he desired to take revenge on him for killing Bakasura and Hidimba. He attacked Bhima, He was moving holding torches. Bhima fought with him and killed him. Ten thousand Yatis and eighty eight thousand Brahmanas had accompanied Pandavas. In order to provide food for them and maintain them Pandavas had to make arrangements. They meditated upon Surya Narayana and obtained Akshayapatra. This used to yield plenty of food and other requirements like Kamadhenu. Pandavas provided food and other facilities to Yatis and Brahmanas through this Akshayapatra. Dharmaraja took his food after his brothers took food. After Dharmaraja, Draupadi used to take her food. Vidura, Sri Vedavyasa and Maitreya advised Dhritarashtra to treat the Pandavas properly and give them their kingdom. However, this did not yield any result.
Sri Krishna arrives and narrated Salva vadha Pandavas sent a message to Shri Krishna informing their plight in the forest. Krishna, Satyabhama and Drupada arrived. Krishna said if I were present at Indraprastha. I would not have allowed such a thing to happen. He had gone to Dwaraka to fight with Salva. When Krishna learnt that Salva has attacked Dwaraka, he sent Pradyumna to counter him. Salva preferred to fight with Pradyumna on the ground and came down from his Vimana. Pradyumna employed the special arrow to kill him. However, an aerial voice informed him not to kill Salvas as he is destined to be killed by Shri Krishna. On seeing this arrow Salva ran away. Then, I went and followed him I saw him moving in the Saubha Vimana. He used his Maya. As a result I saw a messenger coming to me. He told me that Salva has already killed Vasudeva. I saw Vasudeva being dropped from Saubha Vimana. Suddenly the entire army became invisible. The Rakshasas declared their victory. I saw all this fun or sometime and killed Salva by Chakrayudha. Narrating the episode of Salva to explain his absence, Shri Krishna consoled Draupadi, stayed in the forest for sometime and left with Satyabhama. Subhadra and Abhimanyu, Dhristadyumna also let taking the children of Draupadi with him. Dhristaketu the son of Shishupala took Devaki his sister and the wife of Dharmaraja to his Chedi Country. The king of Kashi took with him his daughter Kalidevi, the wife of Bhimasena. The wives of Nakula and Sahadeva viz Parvati and Vijaya stayed with Kunti. Draupadi's sons stayed in Panchala for sometime ad then moved to Dwaraka.
Draupadi and Bhima advise Dharmraja Bhima asked Draupadi to talk to Dharmaraja and keep his spirit to fight the Kauravas after thirteen years. If he is isolated for such a long time from the thought of the harm done to us by Kauravas, he may become indifferent to the kingdom. Draupadi went to Dharmaraja and told him that tolerance is not a virtue in respect of evil persons. If the king is tolerant even with evil persons the good people will suffer. It is said that dharma protects a person if he protects dharma. But in your case dharma did not protect you. Duryodhana does not care for dharma but he is prospering. This makes me to loose the faith in the very dharma. It is true that the God manages everything. However man's effort is also necessary. If man has nothing to do with his undertakings, then, the vidhi and nishedha i.e., 'do and 'do not' prescribed in Veda will loose their meaning. Dharmaraja listened to these arguments of Draupadi and said these are empty arguments. The man is not independent in his undertakings; He is regulated by God in all matters. God is the independent agent. Every one else is under his control. Man should undertake his activities with this awareness. He should respond to Vidhi and nisheda as God's command. Then, Bhima also joined this discussion. He agreed with Dharmaraja that God is all in all. One had to realize both the facts that Jiva has to do his duties but also be aware that he is not independent. Only such a person who knows both these aspects can function better and do his duty. One should not arrogate Svatantrakartritva for himself or akartritva. Jiva functions on the basis of his Yogyata, anadikarma and prayatna. These three are under the control of God. He is independent, he is supreme. He guides the Jivas taking into account these factors. He has no partiality or cruelty. With this background Bhimasena explains Varnadharmas, particularly, Rajadharm. He concludes by saying that dice play is not a dharma. Therefore he can take back our kingdom. There is provision to consider thousand years as thousand months in Satrayuga. Applying this yard stick thirteen years may be considered as thirteen months. We have already spent twelve months. Spending another month in ajnatavasa we may go back, fight, and take back our kingdom. Dharmaraja agrees with Bhima but says we can take this action after thirteen years. However, I am worried as to how to face such strong men Bhishma and Drona. They are our elders and respectable persons. At this juncture Sri Vedavyasa arrives. Sri Vedavyasa instructed Pratismriti Mantra to Dharmaraja with instruction what he should pass it on to Arjuna. When this Mantra is recited all the deities appear and teach the respective astra mantras. Dharmaraja received the mantra from Sri Vedavyasa and taught it to Arjuna. The Pashupatastra Arjuna went to Indrakila hill and started penance. He meditated upon Vishnu present in Shiva. At this time a demon Mukasura who was planning to kill Arjuna in the form of a pig. Arjuna threw the arrows at it. At the same time Shiva also arrives with Parvati. He also threw the arrows at the pig. He said it belongs to him. He has come for hunting. Arjuna is not a hunter. A fight ensues between the two. Arjuna collapsed. He prepared a Shivalinga, worshipped it with flowers. To his surprise the flowers were seen on the head of Shiva who had come in the form of a hunter. Arjuna realized that the hunter was Shiva himself. He prostrated at his feet. Shiva gave him Pashupatastra. This astra really speaking was of Vishnu only. It got the name Pashupatastra because, Shiva acquired. Its original name is Brahmastra. This is the name of Gayatri hymn. Narayana present in
Suryamandala is the deity for Gayatri hymn. When Arjuna received this hymn, Narayana appeared before him Shiva blessed him and asked him to go to Indraloka to get the astras from other deities. Urvasi curses Arjuna Arjuna went to Svarga. He was duly received. Indra taught him Vajrastra etc. HE arranged to teach him music and dance by Gandharvas. While observing the dance by Urvasi, Arjuna looked at her intently. Urvasi thought he is interested in her. She approached him He refused to oblige
her. She cursed him to become a napunsaka. When Indra came to know, he restricted it to one year only during ajnatavasa. The episodes of Krishna worshipping Shiva, killing Paundraka Vasudeva, Mainda, Vivida Etc Krishna had told Shiva that he would worship him and undertake penance for him in order to mislead the ignorant. You should preach misleading Shastra declaring yourself as superior. Accordingly Krishna goes to Himalaya and undertakes penance for Shiva. When he was at Badri two Pishachas viz Ghantakarna and Karna came. They were in search of Shri Krishna on the advice of Shiva to get liberated from Pishachas form. They were moving shouting 'Om namo bhagavate Vasudevaya' Krishna touched them and they got back to their original Gandharva form. Shri Krishan went to Kailasa. He pretended to perform the penance for Shiva to mislead the ignorant. Shiva told him that when Karma was burnt down Rati asked for restoring her husband. I told her that he will be born as your son. He may be taken as a son given to you by me. When Krishna went to Kailasa Paundraka Vasudeva and Ekalavya attacked Dwaraka. Balarama, Satyaki, and other Yadavas fought with them. Paundraka used to claim that he is real Vasudeva, the chakra etc belong to him. He asked Krishna to accept this position and give chakra etc to him only. Sri Krishna killed him. Krishna killed Kashiraja and Ekalavya also. On killing Kashiraja his son Sudakshina was enraged. He performed penance for Shiva and requested to enable him to destroy Krishna. Shiva asked him to perform abichara homa. He performed the same. The abicharagni produced by it rushed towards Dwaraka and started burning the city. Krishnachakra prevented it. It went back and hit Sudakshina himself. It is the nature of abicharagni that if it cannot hit the enemy it will hit the very person who has employed it. Krishnachakra burnt the city of Varnasi. Mainda and Vivida attacked Dwaraka. Balarama killed both of them Samba the son of Jambavati took away Lakshana the daughter of Duryodhana. Kauravas were enraged by it and arrested Samba. On hearing this Yadavas wanted to fight with them However, Balarama intervened and got him released. Balarama threatened that he will drag the whole city of Hastinavati into Ganga and drown it in water. Kauravas released Samba.
Ushaharana Banasura's daughter Usha saw Aniruddha in her dream. She desired to marry him. Her friend Chitralekha managed to bring him. Banasura came to know about it and arrested Aniruddha tying him with a snake. Krishna came to Shonitapura fought with Jvara and made Shiva himself motionless by Vijribhanastra. This Jvara had three heads three legs and nine eyes. He used to produce heat and torture enemies. This was known as Saiva Jvara. Krishna produced Vaisnava Jvara that created cold and warded off the effect of Shaiva Jvara. Shri Krishna returned to Dwaraka with Aniruddha, Usha and Chitralekha.
The Saugandhika flower Lomasamuni advised Pandavas to undertake Teertayatra. Pandavas moved around all important piligrim centres and arrived at Badarikashrama. They worshipped Narayana offered pandas to their forefathers and moved further to inner Badri. When Bhima and Draupadi were moving in Badarikashrama a beautiful and fragrant flower was dropped near Draupadi. She desired to have these flowers and asked Bhima to bring them. Bhima proceeded in the thick forest of Himalayas killing the wild animals. On the way Hanuman was sitting. He told Bhima that ordinary men are not expected to move on this path. If you insist on going you have to lift my tail and make a way for you as I am very old. Bhima said you move your tail. Bhima was not able. He apologized to Hanuman asked him to narrate Sri Ram’s glory. Though Bhima himself was Hanuman originally, He pretended to be unable to move the tail and asked him to narrate Shri Ram’s glory for the benefit of all others. Hanuman made way. Bhima proceeded towards Gandhamadana. He saw the pond in which the Saugandhika flowers were found. This place was protected by Maniman and other Krodhavashas. They had procured Sauvastras from Shiva. They attacked Bhima and were destroyed. Bhima collected the flowers from the pond. Pandavas lived in Arshtisena ashrama at Gandhamadana. Indra asked for Gurudakshina from Arjuna for teaching him the great astras. He told him you kill Nivatakavachas who are my enemies. This is Gurudakshina. Arjuna employed Pashupatastra and killed them.
Nahusa episode As a result of killing Vritasura Indra had to vacate his position. The sages put Nahusa in this position. When he took that position he desired to have Sachi. In order to bring him down Sachi told him that she would agree to his request if he makes the sages carry his chariot. Bhrigu cursed him that he should be born as snake. He further said: If a person meets you at the time of your ajagara vrita Parana you will catch him .If you are not able to kill and if he doesn’t get freed from you all your strength will go to him. Ajagara vrita is a ritual in which the observer takes his food after two and half days viz two days two nights and one day make a unit of five. The next night is sashtakala or sixth unit. It is at this time that the observer has to take his food. For this reason this vrita is also called as sashtakala Parana vrita. He also told him that you will be free from snake body when someone answers your questions. When Bhrigu cursed Nahusa he was not visible to him. He was in Jata of Agastya. These were avesha of Brahma in Bhrigu. Strictly speaking the above curse was given to Brahma only. All this
was in consequence of Nahusa putting his foot on Agastya’s head and Sachi’s trick to instigate him to invoke the sages to his chariot. Bhima was caught by this snake. Bhima did not try to get freed from the snake nor did he reply to the question of Nahusa. He wanted to draw out the strength of the penance of Nahusa. He allowed the snake to get exhausted and become loose. Dharmaraja arrives and asks Nahusa to free Bhima. Dharmaraja himself answers the question .Nahusa asks I) who is Brahmana ii) what is the highest principle that should be known by a seeker iii) which are the means of liberation. Dharmaraja answered these questions. Nahusa was freed from the body of the snake.
Pandavas moved to Dvaitavana. Krishna and Satyabhama arrived. Satyabhama asked Draupadi to explain stridharmas. She explained.
Jayadratha episode One day Pandavas went for hunting. Draupadi alone was in ashrama. Jayadratha was going to a svayamwara by that way. He asked her to come with him. She refused. He forcibly took her in his chariot. Dhaumya followed. Pandavas arrived. Draupadi jumped put of the chariot. A companion of Jayadratha was killed. Dharmaraja asked Bhima not to kill Jayadratha as he was the son-in-law of Dhritarashtra. He ran away.
Markandeya narrates a number of stories Sage Markandeya arrived. He narrated a number of stories which can be understood if we know three layers of language. Viz. dharshanabhasa, guhyabhasha and Samadhibhasha. Dharshanabhasa is again of two types viz Lokadarshana and Paradarshana. Paradarshana is also of two types viz Laukika paradarshana and Vaidika paradarshana.
Ghosayatra Duryodhana undertook Paundarikayaga. This was a substitute for Rajasuya yaga. As one and the same family was not eligible to perform Rajasuyayaga twice he had to go by Paundarika yaga. In order to display his wealth and the poverty of Pandavas Duryodhana organized Ghosahayatra. He proceeded to take bath in the lake at Kamukavana close to the ashrama of Pandavas. However, the Gandharva Chitrasena had already taken position of the lake. When Duryodhana tried to enter forcibly he was arrested. Duryodhana’s brothers, Shakuni etc were also dragged out. Duryodhana’s servant appealed to Pandavas to get him released. Dharmaraja was performing one day sacrifice. Therefore, he deputed Bhima and Arjuna to get Duryodhana released. He said when a third party attacks he has hundred and five brothers are one. Duryodhana felt deeply humiliated as he had to take the help of Pandavas. He started a fast unto death i.e. prayopavesha. He asked Dusyasana to take charge of the kingdom. Dusyasana appealed to him to give up the fast. Karna also appealed. Karna said when the master is in difficulty it is the duty of the servants to help him. Pandavas are your slaves. Therefore, you need not feel humiliated if they help.
The Assuras also thought if Duryodhana withdraws Pandavas will become strong. They always support the God but not us. Therefore, we should put enthusiasm at the heart of Duryodhana. They managed to get Duryodhana to Patalaloka when he was asleep. They told him, he was a Vajrakaya and quite strong Therefore, he should not feel depresses. Karna took an oath that he would not refuse to give a gift when some one asked him and would wash his feet himself until he killed Arjuna.
Karna gifts his Kundala Indra became alarmed. He desired to weaken Karna. He went to Karna in the form of Brahmana and asked for the gift of his karnakundalas. Karna gave even though he knew that it
was a game of Indra. Karna never refused to give a gift someone asked him. In return Indra gave him Shakti ayudha; He said it would kill only one person excepting Arjuna.
Yaksha prashna Sometime after the release of Duryodhana a Brahmana came and told that his arani sticks and yajnapatra are taken away by a deer. He had put them in a cloth on the branch of a tree and a deer’s horn stuck to it and it was taken by the deer. Pandavas ran after the deer. It became invisible. They sat under a banyan tree. They felt thirsty. Nakula climbed the tree and saw a pond nearby. He went to drink water. He heard the arial voice that this pond belongs to me. You should not drink the water without answering my questions. Nakula sipped the water without answering my questions. He fell on the ground. Sahadeva, Arjuna, Bhima also sipped the water without answering the questions. They all fell down one after the other. Dharmaraja came. He answered the questions. Yama had appeared in the form of Yaksha. He was pleased with the answers of Dharmaraja and asked him to ask for the revival of the life of one of his brothers. Dharmaraja asked for the revival of Nakula. Yaksha asked why he did not choose Bhima or Arjuna, Dharmaraja said he wanted at least one son of Madri to be revived. Yama was pleased and revived the life of all brothers .He told dharmaraja that he himself had taken away the arani patra assuming the form of a deer. He returned the arani patra to Dharmaraja. He gave the same to the Brahmana. Prof.K.T.Pandurangi Upakulapati Poornaprajna Vidyapeeta
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Agnatavasa of Pandavas The events of Virataparva that relate to the agnatavasa of Pandavas are described in 23rd chapter.After completing the twelve years period of Vanavasa Pandavas took leave of Dhaumya, other sages and Brahman’s and made up their mind to undergo agnatavasa. They went to capital city of Virata. Before they entered the city they hid their weapons on a Sami tree in the outskirts of the city. The five Pandavas assumed the form of an ascetic, a cook, a eunuch, a charioteer, and a cowherd respectively. Draupadi assumed the form of Sairandhri i.e. a female artisan. Bhima assumed the form of cook for two reasons i) He never took food prepared by others ii) He did not want to reveal his great knowledge by assuming a Brahmana form. During their Agnatavasa they did not serve Virata or any other person. The younger brothers of Yudhishtira served Lord Hari and their eldest brother Yudhishtira in whom also God was present by the name of Yudhishtira One day a wrestler who had become invincible by the boon of Siva came to Virata's city. The wrestlers maintained by Virata were not able to meet his challenge. The ascetic i.e.Yudhishtira suggested to king Virata that the cook who had the skill in wrestling well could be asked to wrestle with him. The cook i.e., Bhima, wrestled with him and killed.
Kichaka is Killed Ten months after Pandava's stay at Virata's palace, Kichaka, the brother of Queen Sudesna came.He was away to conquer the neighboring kings. When he saw Sairandhri he was captivated by her charm. He asked his sister Sudesna to send her to him. Sudesna tried to prevent him; ultimately she was forced to send her. When Sairandhri went to Kichaka's place he tried to drag her. She pushed him aside and quickly started. Kichaka chased running her and tried to kick her. She prayed Lord Narayana present in Suryamandala. He sent a demon Heti who came in an invisible way. Vayu entered into this demon Heti who came in an invisible way. Vayu entered into this demon and pushed Kichaka to the ground. Bhima angrily looked at a tree. Yudhishtira prevented him. During that night Draupadi met Bhima and told him to take some action, He advised her to tell Kichaka that she would meet him in the Dance hall when nobody would be present there. Accordingly Kichaka was anxiously waiting for her in the Dance hall. Bhima pounced on him and killed him. When Kichaka was killed his one hundred and five brothers who had tried to tie and burn Draupadi, Bhima killed them also. Sudesna asked Draupadi to leave the palace as she was afraid of her. Draupadi asked her to wait for another thirteen days
Duryodhana attacks Virata kingdom to trace Pandavas The spies of Duryodhana who were in search of Pandavas did not find them anywhere. They only reported that Kichaka was killed by someone. On hearing this Duryodhana planned to attack Virata's kingdom as he thought that without Kichaka Virata was weak. Susharma the king of Trigarta and an ally of Duryodhana proceeded first and attacked
Virata's capital city from the Southern side and captured the cows of Virata. King Virata confronted him. Excepting Arjuna, and would join other Pandavas followed him. Virata was arrested by Susarma. Bhima attacked Susharma and arrested him. Yudhistira asked Bhima to release him. The next day Duryodhana proceeded with Bhishma, Drona and others and attacked from the northern side and captured the cows. He had two objectives in mind I) to trace Pandavas ii) Subdue Virata in the absence of Kichaka. On learning this attack Arjuna proceeded with Uttara. He took his gandiva and the flag with the emblem of Hanuman. He won back the cows fighting with the Kaurava Maharathikas individually and also collectively. He employed sammohana astra and made Kauravas unconscious. He took away their royal clothes except that of Bhishma .He cut the chariot of Bhishma to pieces. When he returned Virata said that his son brought the victory. Yudhishtira said Brihannala i.e., Arjuna brought the victory, Virata hit him on the forehead with dice, the next day morning the Pandavas revealed their true nature. Virata requested Yudhishtira to sit on the throne and honored all of them. He offered his daughter Uttara to Arjuna. However, Arjuna said he would accept her for his son Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu's marriage was performed with all pomp.Duryodhana returned to Hastinapur and argued with Bhishma and Drona that since Arjuna was traced before the completion of agnatavasa Pandavas should undergo Vanavasa again for twelve years. Bhishma and Drona did not agree. If one goes by Chandramana one year was completed .But if one goes by Sauramana it was not complete. In respect of counting months and the year Chandramana has to be followed. Hence one year was complete. However, Duryodhana insisted that one year was not complete and refused to return the portion of the kingdom to them.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
The efforts of peace and preparation for War Twenty fourth chapters describe the effort to peace and preparation for war. Drupada sends his priest to Dhritarashtra with the consent of Sri Krishna to advise him to settle the matter peacefully. He meets Dhritarashtra in the presence of Bhishma and Drona and advises him not to have any confrontations with Pandavas. Sri Krishna is their leader, Bhima and Arjuna are great warriors, Bhima has already killed Jarasandha the invincible person, he has killed three crores of Rakshasas who were present at holy places and were troubling pilgrims, he has killed jatasura.Therefore, give their share of kingdom to them without any confrontation. Dhritarashtra did not agree. When war became inevitable both the parties started preparation, Both Duryodhana and Arjuna proceeded to meet Sri Krishna who was pretending sleeping. Arjuna sat at his feet. When Sri Krishna got up he first saw Arjuna, He told Duryodhana that you have come first but I saw Arjuna first, therefore, I would like to treat you two on equal footing. I offer my help to one and send the Yadava army to the help pf the other. You choose one of them. Duryodhana chose the army and Arjuna chose Lord Sri Krishna himself. Duryodhana did not realize the supreme divine personality of Lord Krishna while Arjuna was always conscious of his divine supremacy. Duryodhana went to Balarama also. He did not agree to help him. Duryodhana gathered eleven akshauhini army while there was seven akshauhini army on Pandavas side. In the Pandava army Virata, Drupada, Kikuyu Dhristaketu, son of Jarasandha, King of Kasi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Satyaki were prominent, In the Kaurava’s army Vinda Anuvinda, Jayatsena, Kalinga Ambastha, Srutayudha, Saindhava and Alambusa were prominent. Bhagadatta was especially invited by Duryodhana. Bhishma, Drona and Kripa joined Duryodhana to please Dhritarashtra. Shalya wanted to join Pandavas; however, Duryodhana had arranged a grand reception for him all along his way. Without knowing as to who had arranged it Shalya declared that he would support him who had arranged this reception. Consequently he had to join Duryodhana. Before he joined him he went to Pandavas to seek their endorsement. Arjuna suggested to him that he should humiliate Karna at a critical time. While preparation for war were going on as stated above, Dhritarashtra sent Sanjaya to impress upon Pandavas that fighting with their brothers i.e., Kauravas is not a dharma. Draupadi and Bhima had already told Yudhishtira that to pardon evil persons is adharma. It is the duty of Kshatriyas to fight when they are in a difficult situation. They should not beg for their requirements like Brahmanas. Yudhishtira told Sanjaya accordingly. Sri Krishna also endorsed it.Sanjaya returned and reported to Dhritarashtra. He censured him for his wrong approach and went away. Then Dhritarashtra called Vidhura and asked his opinion. He also said that giving their share of kingdom to Pandavas is the right course. Otherwise all your children will perish. However Dhritarashtra did not make up his mind to agree with this suggestion. Instead, he asked him about the supreme God to enable him to wash off his sins. Vidhura remembered Sanatana. He came and taught about the supreme God Vishnu. He also told that supreme God will not help evil persons. Next day Sanjaya reported his discussion with Yudhishtira in the presence of all Kauravas. Even then Dhritarashtra did not agree to
give the kingdom to Pandavas. Yudhishtira had told Sanjaya that if Dhritarashtra agrees to give us the kingdom, then, you come or send the message through Vidhura. Both of them did not come. Then he consulted Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna offered to go himself and propose what is good for both the parties. If they do not agree then they deserve to be destroyed.At this stage Bhima said let not the entire race be destroyed for our sake, we are prepared even to work under Kauravas to save the race. Though he was capable of destroying the Kauravas and desired to destroy them he said so to elicit the popular opinion. Sri Krishna retorted that destroying Kauravas us dharma. Bhima said I am strong enough to do so. Krishna said you are very strong and praised Bhima. The verse in which Bhima's remark is given suggesting his readiness to work under Kauravas to save the race has a double meaning. It also states that Duryodhana is responsible for the destruction of the race. After we kill him we take care of the race on this earth, Therefore, both Bhima and Sri Krishna were for the war and destruction of the Kauravas, There was never any disagreement between them. Sri Krishna convinced Arjuna also about the necessity of war. Nakula asked Sri Krishna to be tactful without realizing that Sri Krishna was supreme and needed no advice. Sahadeva supported war. Draupadi said those who have stolen our kingdom must be put down. Therefore, do not make any peace proposal.
Sri Krishna visits Hastinapur Sri Krishna proceeded to Hastinapur with Satyaki. As he preceded people welcomed with flowers all along the way. Bhishma, Drona and all distinguished citizens received him. Sri Krishna entered Dhritarashtra's palace. He received the hospitality of Dhritarashtra. Though he went to Duryodhana's residence he did not receive any hospitality from him. He went to Vidura's residence and in the evening went to Kunti's residence. He did not go to the residences of Bhishma. Etc as they had been indifferent when Draupadi was humiliated. Next day he was invited to the assembly hall and was offered a golden seat. After exercising the courtesy greetings he told Dhritarashtra that he should give back the kingdom to Pandavas. This will be for the welfare of the race and your children. Dhritarashtra said my son does not listen and you directly advise him. Duryodhana did not care for Sri Krishna's advice and he left the hall with his associates to plan the arrest of Sri Krishna. Satyaki and heard the plan and informed Sri Krishna. Sri Krishna told Dhritarashtra I am everywhere and I cannot be arrested. Dhritarashtra called his sons. Sri Krishna revealed his Visvarupa. Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, Drona, Vidura and Sanjaya saw it. Duryodhana's vision was blurred by the flash of luster of the divine personality of Visvarupa. He restored the blindness to Dhritarashtra. Sri Krishna visited Kunti's residence again. She told him to ask Yudhishtira to fight. Then he went to Karna, took him away on a chariot and told him that he is a son of Kunti and invited him to join Pandavas in the battle. Karna did not agree. He also told Ashvatthama to be friendly with Pandavas. HE agreed to be so until his father's death. Kunti met Karna and asked him to join Pandavas. He did not agree but told her that excepting Arjuna he will not kill other Pandavas. Surya also appeared and told Karna to join Pandavas. He did not agree. He told Kunti whether I die or Arjuna is killed she will have five children.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
The ten days battle under the Commandership of Bhishma
Twenty fifth chapter describes the events on the battle field on first ten days when Bhishma led Kaurava's army. It begins with a summary of Gitopadesha. It is well known that when Arjuna hesitates to fight on seeing his gurus, relatives and others closely associated with him, Sri Krishna delivered Gitopadesha and made him to realize that everything is under the control of Supreme God and he has to discharge his duty in dedication to him. This message is briefly summarized here. Then follows a detailed description of fighting. An important point of this description is that the role played by Bhima is prominently presented and it is especially pointed out that it is he who was mainly responsible for the victory at all fronts. Another point is that the role played by the younger generation viz, the sons of Draupadi the sons of Virata. Ghatothkacha Abhimanyu is described in greater detail. On the very first day there was confrontation between Drona and Drupada, Satyaki and Krtavarma, Dusyasana and Sahadeva, Vikarnas and the sons of Draupadi. This kind of Dual went on all along. Bhima halted Bhishma, Drona and Bhagadatta. Shalya killed Uttara Kumara the son of Virata. Bhishma killed Sveta. Karna did not participate in the battle so long as Bhishma was the commander as he was humiliated by Bhishma as ardharatha. Dhristadyumna confronted Bhishma on the second day. Bhima and Arjuna did not confront him out of reverence.
Sri Krishna takes Chakrayudha
On the third day when Sri Krishna found that Arjuna is dealing with Bhishma leniently he himself took his Chakrayudha and proceeded towards Bhishma raising his arms. On seeing this both Bhishma and Arjuna appealed to him and Sri Krishna withdrew. According Mahabharatha Sri Krishna took Chakrayudha on the 3rd day and proceeded raising his arms on the 9th day These two are stated together here.Holding chakra was intended to justify Bhishma's statement that he will make Sri Krishna to take his Chakrayudha, Then Bhishma and Arjuna fought bitterly. Bhishma killed ten thousand charioteers and withdrew for the day.On the fourth day Bhima killed twenty five sons of Dhritarashtra. Duryodhana was heavily hit by the arrows of Bhima and was profusely bleeding. Duryodhana expressed his dejection to Bhishma. Bhishma told him that Pandavas are not ordinary men. They are the deities born to remove the burden of evil men on the earth. Duryodhana did not take it seriously. Bhishma gave him certain medicinal plants. He applied the same and resumed the war next day. On the fifth day a fierce battle was again resumed. Dhristadyumna employed Sammohana astra and made the brothers of Duryodhana unconscious. Drona employed Vijnana astra and revived them. Dhristadyumna and Krtavarma bitterly fought against each other. Bhurisrava killed ten sons of Satyaki. On the sixth day Bhishma and Arjuna bitterly fought against each other. On the seventh day Bhima destroyed the chariot of Bhishma. Bhagadatta attacked Bhima. Bhima's son Ghatothkacha intervened. He assumed four forms, entered into four elephants viz., Airavata, Arjuna, Vamana, and Mahapadma and killed the elephant
Supratika and Bhagadatta. On eight day Iravanta son of Ulupi killed six brothers of Sakuni. Duryodhana asked Alambusa to attack Iravanta. Iravanta took the form of a snake and Alambusa took the form of Garuda and killed him. On seeing this Ghatothkacha attacked Alambusa. He ran away. Then Duryodhana himself confronted Ghatothkacha. At this stage Drona, Shalya, Ashvattama, Kripa, Krtavarma arrived. Ghatothkacha threw a large number of arrows from over the sky. Drona became unconscious. Kauravas away. Duryodhana asked Bhishma as to how to defeat Ghatothkacha.Bhagadatta confronted Ghatothkacha. He threw the weapon Sula on him. Bhima also joined the fighting. He stopped Bhagadatta's Supratika elephant. Krishna also arrived with Arjuna to take away his Vaisnava Astra. Bhagadatta ran away. During that night Duryodhana went to Bhishma and told him that he is not doing his best and is lenient to Pandava army. Bhishma said excepting Shikandi he will kill the entire Panchala army. On the 9th day Bhishma started fighting fiercely he killed fourteen thousand soldiers of Panchala, Karusa etc. Abhimanyu proceeded towards Bhishma. Alambusa prevented him. Drona killed Sankha the son of Virata. Finding that Bhishma is furious and there will be large destruction of their army Yudhishtira with his brothers and Sri Krishna approached Bhishma at night and asked him to tell the way in which he could be killed. In a way Pandavas desired to take his permission to kill him. He told them that placing Shikandi before him they can kill him.
Arjuna throws arrows at Bhishma from behind Shikandi
On the tenth day Shikandi stood in front of Bhishma and Arjuna stood behind him. Dushyasana also stood before Bhishma to protect him. Bhima halted Drona, Ashvatthama, Duryodhana, Bhagadatta, and Kripa Shalya. Yudhishtira was halted by Shakuni, Dhristadyumna was halted by Jayadratha. Pushing aside Shakuni and others, Pandavas, Virata, and Drupada went near Bhishma. Protected by Arjuna Shikandi threw arrows at Bhishma. Bhishma did not hit back. Arjuna destroyed the bow of Bhishma. Yudhishtira and all others also threw arrows at him. He fell on the ground. Bhima rushed at Bhishma. Keeping their weapons all others also went near Bhishma. He instructed them to their camp and they returned. Next day they came. Bhishma asked for water. Arjuna employed Varunastra and gave him water; He had already given the pillow of three arrows. Bhishma advised Duryodhana to realize the strength of Pandavas and the support of Sri Krishna to them and make peace with them. However, Duryodhana returned without saying anything. Dhritarashtra who came to know all this through Sanjaya felt very unhappy.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Drona takes charge as Commander-in-chief
On the eleventh day Drona was made the Commander in chief. Karna also joined him. Duryodhana asked Drona to arrest Yudhishtira. Drona initiated a bitter fighting and tried to arrest Yudhishtira. However, Arjuna made a counter attack and failed the effort of Drona arresting Yudhishtira. Bhima also gave a tough fight. On that night Duryodhana expressed his displeasure to Drona for not arresting Yudhishtira. Drona suggested, “If Arjuna was diverted from the main field of the battle Yudhishtira could be arrested”. On the twelfth day Susharma and Samsatakas were asked to take away Arjuna to some other area of the battlefield. Satyaratha, Satyavarma, Satyavrata, Satyeshu and Satyakarma were called Samsaptakas as these had taken an oath to kill Arjuna in the presence of a ritual fire. They took Arjuna in the presence of a ritual fire. They took Arjuna aside and started fighting. In the meanwhile, Duryodhana asked Bhagadatta to confront Bhima. Bhima hit the elephant Supratika of Bhagadatta. Sri Krishna saw this confrontation between Bhima and Bhagadatta. He thought Bhagadatta might employ vaisnavastra which he alone could pacify. Therefore, he started to come to this area with Arjuna. He Samsaptakas tried to prevent Arjuna. He employed Sammohana astra and moved towards Bhagadatta. Arjuna and Bhagadatta started fighting. Bhagadatta employed vaisnavastra. Sri Krishna received it and it became Vaijayanthi mala. Arjuna hit Bhagadatta and his elephant Supratika. Both died, Arjuna killed Achala and Vrishika the two younger brothers of Shakuni. Shakuni employed certain magical weapons. Arjuna destroyed them. Shakuni ran away. Ashvatthama killed Nila. Bhima destroyed the horses of Ashvatthama. That night Duryodhana again met Drona pulled him up for not arresting Yudhishtira. Drona said “when Arjuna is away I will arrest Yudhishtira or at least I will kill a person who is equal to him.
Abhimanyu enters into Chakravyuha
On 13th day Drona prepared Padmavyuha in which nobody could enter without reciting Vishnu mantra. Arjuna was diverted to the other area of battle field by Samsaptakas. Bhima did not want to recite Vishnumantra for a Kamyaphala. The other Pandavas did not know, Abhimanyu only knew. Therefore Yudhishtira asked him to enter. Accordingly Abhimanyu entered. The others followed but were prevented by Jayadratha. When these were fighting with Jayadratha, Abhimanyu entered deep into Padmavyuha. Drona, Duryodhana, Karna, Shalya, Ashvatthama and Krtavarma surrounded him. They destroyed his bow, arrows and even horses, they hit him from behind. Ultimately they killed him. Sri Vedavyasa consoled Yudhishtira and others. Arjuna returned defeating Samsaptakas. He was greatly distressed by the news of the death of his son. He took an oath that he would kill Jayadratha before the sunset the next day. If he was not able to kill him within the stipulated time he would offer himself to fire. At that night he had a dream.
During that dream he was taken by Sri Krishna to Lord Shiva who strengthened Pashupatastra mantra already given to him. Though Sri Krishna could have fully protected him he wanted that the bestower of this astra should protect him. The next day Drona arranged Saktabja Chakravyuha to protect Jayadratha. He himself stood at the entrance. Karna, Ashvatthama, Kripa, Shalya also were ready to protect Jayadratha. Arjuna arrived on his best chariot. First he defeated Durmarshana and Dusyasana. Then he pushed aside Krtavarma. He killed Vinda and Anuvinda. These were the kings Avanti country. They were different from the brothers Duryodhana of the same name. Arjuna killed Sudakshina and Ambastha. Srutayudha attacked him. Arjuna cut his arms. Srutayudha’s mace fell on the shoulders of Sri Krishna. It hit back the head of Srutayudha and his head was cut into pieces.Varuna had given this mace to him with the condition that if he employs it on a person who is not fighting, his head will be cut into pieces. Drona gave a special armor to Duryodhana. Arjuna cut his palm as it was not covered by the armor. Arjuna fought with Karna and Ashvatthama also who were protecting Jayadratha.Drona entered into Pandavas army and confronted Yudhishtira, He tried to arrest him. Satyajit, the son of Drupada prevented him. Drona killed him. Sahadeva took away Yudhishtira on his chariot. Dhristaketu, Saibya, Brihatkshatra etc. attacked Drona. He killed all of them.Alambusa attacked Bhima’s followers. Bhima employed tvastra weapon. Invisible arrows come out of it and pierced Alambusa. He ran away. Ghatothkacha pursued him. He fought with him in the sky. He pushed him to the ground and killed.Krtavarma attacked Pandavas army. He defeated Panchala army. Nakula and Sahadeva. Bhima threw Shakti weapon at Krtavarma. Satyaki killed the horses of Krtavarma. He ran away. Bhurisrava attacked Satyaki. He fell on the ground. Bhurisrava raised his sword to kill Satyaki. rjuna cut his arms. Satyaki killed him. Arjuna’s horses were tired. He created water by employing Varunastra. Sri Krishna made them to drink water. Yudhishtira became anxious about Arjuna on not hearing the sound of Gandiva and hearing only the sound of Panchajanya. He asked Bhima to proceed to protect Arjuna. Bhima asked Dhristadyumna and Satyaki to take care of Yudhishtira and proceeded. Drona prevented him. Since, Bhima considered Drona like his father he was dealing with him leniently. Now that he was preventing him to go near Arjuna, he destroyed his chariot. Drona went away to make an effort again to arrest Yudhishtira. When Bhima proceeded twelve sons of Dhritarashtra viz. Vinda-Anuvinda and others confronted him. He cut their heads. The other sons chitrasena, vivimsati etc ran away. Krtavarma also came in the way. Bhima hit him hard. Finally Bhima reached Arjuna and Sri Krishna, and he was very happy to meet them. On finding that of Bhima arrived Karna and Vikarna and others came. Bhima killed Vikarna and Chitrasena, and destroyed Karna’s chariot. Karna fought twenty one times and was defeated. On twenty second time Karna came with his special bow vijaya given by parashurama. Bhima cut the new Kavacha and Kundala of Karna. Parashurama had told Karna that you would defeat all those with whom you do not fight with a spirit of competition. Out of respect for these words of Parashurama Bhima slackened his attack. Karna abused him saying that he was only good for eating, he better go to dining hall rather than the battle field. “Bhima did not take away the Shakti ayudha of Karna as he knew the divine plan that Ghatothkacha is to be killed by it.
Arjuna kills Jayadratha
Karna moved towards Arjuna. Sri Krishna asked Satyaki to fight with him. Karna went away to protect Jayadratha, Ashvatthama also protected him. It became difficult for Arjuna to move towards Jayadratha pushing aside Ashvatthama. Sri Krishna brought about darkness to veil the sun. Seeing the darkness Drona and others thought that sun had set. Jayadratha though Arjuna was not able to fulfill his oath and came out. Arjuna pretended to enter into the fire and cut the head of Jayadratha. Sri Krishna asked him not to drop it on the ground and drop it in the hands of Jayadratha’s father who was engaged in the evening prayer. The father dropped it on the ground. Consequently his head was shattered into thousand pieces. Sri Krishna himself had given a boon to his son that the head of the person who drops the head of Jayadratha would be broken into thousand pieces. Now, it recoiled on him only then Sri Krishna withdrew the darkness and blew Panchajanya conch. Ashvatthama and Karna tried to attack Bhima and Arjuna. They were defeated. Duryodhana also confronted the Pandavas army. They were all defeated. Duryodhana again complained to Drona that he was not keeping his promises. Drona promised that he would fight. By this time seven akshauhini army were killed in two armies. Out of this Bhima had killed three akshauhini and Arjuna two. During the night a terrible fight between Karna and Bhima took place. A bitter fight between Ashvatthama and Ghatothkacha also took place. In the meanwhile Karna came. Ghatothkacha started fighting with him. The demon Alambusa and Alayudha also came. Ghatothkacha killed them also. Karna employed Shakti ayudha against Ghatothkacha and killed him. Yudhishtira Was unhappy at the death of Bhima’s son. Sri Vedavyasa arrived and consoled him. As the night advanced the army felt sleepy. They slept on horses, elephants and wherever they were with weapons in their hands. Arjuna permitted them to sleep until moonlight spread. When moonlight spread they again started fighting. Satyaki killed Bhurisrava and Somadatta. Bahlika employed Shatagni weapon against Bhima. Bhima killed him by his mace. Bahlika had requested Bhima to kill him to enable him to attain higher world.
Drona collapses on the ground on hearing the death of Ashvatthama Dhristadyumna kills Drona.
On fifteenth day Drona entered into Panchala’s army and started fighting fiercely. He killed Virata and Drupada. Bhima protected Dhristadyumna. Drona employed Brahmastra and killed Purujit, Kuntibhoja and others. Bhima, Arjuna and Satyaki kept away Ashvatthama, Karna, Duryodhana, Shalya Krtavarma and Kripa from Drona. Bhima killed an elephant of name Ashvatthama of Malva king. Yudhishtira loudly announced that Ashvatthama was killed. He added in a whispering way that it was an elephant. Drona was extremely unhappy. He sat down. Vasishta and other sages asked him to stop earning his livelihood by destructive activity. Dhristadyumna rushed towards him and cut his head. Drona left the mortal world. Ashvatthama arrived. He employed Narayana Astra. Sri Krishna asked Pandavas to offer Pranamas to this astra and escape. All others followed Sri Krishna and escaped. However, Bhima did not follow. The astra fell on the head of Bhima, a fire erupted around. Arjuna covered Bhima by Varuna astra. Sri Krishna and Arjuna entered into the chariot of Bhima and brought him out of chariot.
The fire of Narayanastra did not burn this three.Narayana Astra has to be respected by all. However, when an enemy employs it a Kshatriya has to fight it. Therefore Bhima did not offer pranama to it. Moreover Vayu is abhimani of the Astra and hence the fire did not hurt him. Then Ashvatthama employed Agnyastra which destroyed one akshauhini and Pandavas army. Arjuna escaped with the help of Shri Krishna. Ashwatthama became disgusted by this and threw away his bow. Sri Vedavyasa.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Karna is installed as Commander-in-chief Twenty Seventh chapter describes the battle on sixteenth and seventeenth days and the death of Dusyasana and Karna. After the death of Drona Karna was appointed as commander-in-chief with the consent of Ashvatthama. A fierce battle continued between Kaurava and Pandava armies. Bhima killed Kshemadhurti. Ashvatthama was enraged by this and attacked Bhima. However, Bhima strongly encountered him. Ashvatthama retreated. Duryodhana attacked Yudhishtira. Yudhishtira cut down his chariot. He was taken away by Kripa. Satyaki fought with Vinda and Anuvinda of Kekaya country and cut the heads of both of them. Dhristadyumna was attacked by Kripa. Yudhishtira protected him. Karna closed the battle for the day. On seventeenth day Karna asked Duryodhana to appoint Shalya as chariot driver. When Duryodhana asked Shalya to take up the task Shalya pretended to be unwilling. Duryodhana consoled him saying a chariot driver is expected to be superior to charioteer in intelligence, strength and courage and gave the example of Sri Krishna. Shalya agreed on the condition, if he would talk in a derogating way of Karna or Duryodhana for their own good they should bear with it. Karna said "I will reward the person who will bring Arjuna before me". Shalya narrated brave achievements of Arjuna and advised Karna not to compare himself with him. When the battle commenced Karna first attacked Yudhishtira. Bhima attacked Duryodhana to counteract it. Shalya advised Karna to take care of master first. Karna talked ill of Shri Krishna and Yudhishtira. Bhima desired to cut his tongue. However Shalya advises him not to mutilate him now, since, he is destined to die at the hand of Arjuna. Ashvatthama entered the army of Pandavas. He attacked Yudhishtira, Dryushtadyumna, Nakula, Sahadeva and Satyaki. He cut down their chariots. Then, he confronted Arjuna; there was a fierce battle between the two. The king of Pandya intervened. Ashvatthama cut his head. Arjuna killed Dantadhara. Dhristadyumna arrived with his army. Ashvatthama finally attacked him. Bhima and Arjuna counteracted him. He left the place. Krtavarma confronted Dhristadyumna Duryodhana started fighting with Nakula and Sahadeva. Yudhishtira prevented him. Karna attacked Bhima. Karna's son Sushena was killed by Bhima. Karna was enraged by this and attacked Yudhishtira. Bhima attacked Duryodhana. Shalya asked Karna to take care of Duryodhana. Karna went towards him. Yudhishtira returned to camp. Dusyasana confronted Dhristadyumna. Ashvatthama fought against Arjuna. Bhima finally attacked Kaurava army. Karna was enraged by his and threw his Bhargava weapon on Bhima. It did not make any impact on Bhima by the grace of Parashurama. Arjuna went to Bhima asked Arjuna to go the camp and meet Yudhishtira. Arjuna went to Yudhishtira with Shri Krishna .Yudhishtira asked him whether he had killed whether he had killed Karna. Arjuna said he was yet to be killed. Yudhishtira was upset he scolded Arjuna and said that he was incapable of wielding gandiva, better give it to Sri Krishna who would kill Karna and asked to withdraw from the battle field and told that Bhima would kill Karna. On hearing these remarks Arjuna took his sword to kill Yudhishtira. He told Sri Krishna that he had taken an oath that if anyone asked him to hand over gandiva he would kill him. Krishna said “it is true that standing by your word is dharma but its implementation should be made in the right way.
Killing an elderly person like Yudhishtira is adharma. Therefore a way has to be found out by which the adharma is avoided and your word is also kept”. He suggested that Arjuna should humiliate Yudhishtira by improper words which would amount to killing him. On this advice Arjuna scolded Yudhishtira as “you are a coward, ungrateful and deceptive”, and then took his sword to kill himself. He thought that scolding the elders was a sin and killing himself was a retribution for it. Sri Krishna told him that selfglorification is as good as self killing and he should go by this method. Yudhishtira was very much annoyed. When Arjuna scolded him and told Arjuna that you better kill or else I will retire to forest. Shri Krishna explained the reason for Arjuna scolding Yudhishtira and his self-glorification and consoled him.Arjuna begged his pardon. At the battle field, Shakuni confronted Bhima. Bhima pushed him to the ground and cut down his chariot. He did not kill him as he was destined to be killed by Sahadeva.
Bhima Sucks the blood of Dusyasana, Bhima is the seer of Manyusukta.
Dusyasana confronted Bhima. Bhima cut down his chariot, pushed him to the ground and broke his chest. He sat on him pushed the sword into his chest and sucked his blood. He did not actually drink his blood but sucked up to the teeth, He gave an impression that he sucked the blood but it did not enter into his mouth beyond the teeth. While sucking the blood he contemplated Manyusukta which glorifies God Narasimha. Manyu Sukta was known to deities only up to this time. Now it was seen by Bhima. Therefore, he is the seer for this hymn. When Karna saw this, his bow fell down. He closed his eyes out of fear.
Karna’s Chariot stuck into the ground
At this time Karna’s son Vrishasena confronted Nakula. At the same time he showered arrows on Arjuna. Arjuna cut his neck and arms by one arrow. Karna was enraged by this and attacked Arjuna. It was a terrible battle. The deities and demons watched this battle from over the sky.Duryodhana, Ashvatthama and others gathered around Karna and tried to protect him. Bhima Satyaki etc stood by Arjuna. Observing the terrible fighting capacity of Arjuna, Ashvatthama pleaded to Duryodhana that “we are already defeated on many fronts. This battle is going to destroy all of us. Enough of this enmity for Pandavas. Please seek peace with Pandavas”. Duryodhana said “it is impossible to have peace with Pandavas. Bhima has killed my brother Dusyasana. I must retaliate”. Arjuna and Karna exchanged all important weapons like aneya, Varuna. Karna employed Sarpastra. Shri Krishna pushed the chariot five feet in the earth. The weapon hit the crown of Arjuna which was broken into pieces. Karna continued fighting. However, his chariot was pushed into the ground due to the curse of a Brahmana. He forgot the wielding of his weapon also due to Parashurama’s curse. Karna asked Arjuna to wait until his chariot was lifted up. Arjuna employed anjalikastra. Karna’s head was served, it flew up and fell. The head and the trunk of Karna’s body fell apart.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Twenty eight chapter describes the battle on eighteenth day. The defeat and death of Shalya, the death of Duryodhana, Ashvatthama killing Dhristadyumna and sons of Draupadi, the close of the battle and the sorrow of Dhritarashtra and Gandhari are described here. After the death of Karna, Shalya was appointed as Commander-in-chief. Shalya confronted Yudhishtira and Ashvatthama confronted Bhima. The sons of Draupadi fought against the brothers of Duryodhana. Sahadeva, Nakula and Dhristadyumna confronted Shakuni, Ulka and Krtavarma respectively. Shalya hit Arjuna who was supporting Yudhishtira with the weapons Surya, Yama and parjanya. Arjuna cut all his weapons. Yudhishtira hit Shalya with Shakti weapon and killed him Arjuna killed Susharma. Bhima killed remaining brothers of Duryodhana. Sahadeva killed Shakuni. Satyaki arrested Sanjaya. However, with Aindra Astra Sri Vedavyasa asked him to release Sanjaya. Sanjaya was not merely a reported. He used to participate in the battle also. Duryodhana tried to employ Prasha weapon against Bhima. Bhima cut the weapon into pieces. Duryodhana ran away to Dvaipayana Lake. Having practiced Jalastambana Duryodhana started reciting mantra inside the lake. This mantra was given to him by Durvasa. It had the power to revive the life of all dead persons, if recited for seven days. Pandavas went in search of him they had come to know from a hunter that Duryodhana was hiding inside Dvaipayana Lake. Sanjaya also met him on the way, Duryodhana told him to inform Dhritarashtra that he was in the lake. Pandavas reached the lake. Yudhishtira addressed Duryodhana with harsh words. Duryodhana came out. HE claimed that even at this stage he would fight them with either with all or with any one of them. Yudhishtira asked him to choose any one of them. Duryodhana preferred Bhima. The two started fighting with mace i.e. gada. In the meanwhile Balarama arrived. He asked them not to fight. But they continued. In order to mislead Bhima in the fight Duryodhana stood on the head raising his thighs above. This gave an opportunity to Bhima to hit him at the bottom of his back-bone. This point was neither above the navel nor below it. By this Duryodhana’s thighs were broken. This served two purposes i) as he did not hit below navel Yuddhadharma was not violated.ii) as his thighs were broken Bhima’s oath that he would break his thighs was fulfilled. While hitting at Duryodhana Bhima saw the Vedic hymn Rishaba Sukta. This narrated this event with secret meaning. Bhima stamped with his foot the head of Duryodhana and crushed it. Balarama was upset by it. He rushed towards Bhima with his plough. He raised his arms and declared it is against dharma. Shri Krishna explained that “one should not hit below the navel when the opponent is moving in circular way, or coming towards or withdrawing. In other positions hitting below navel is not adharma. Further when opponent tries to deceive as in the present case, it is not adharma. Moreover Bhima has taken an oath that he would break the thighs of Duryodhana. Keeping the oath is a greater Dharma, that too against a person who had shown his thigh to a respectable woman.” Even at this stage Duryodhana went on glorifying himself and cursing Shri Krishna. Pandavas entered into Kauravas camp took away all their wealth. Shri Krishna went to Dhritarashtra consoled him and came back to Kaurava camp. Sri Krishna and Pandavas remained at the camp only, during the night while Dhristadyumna and others remained at the Pandavas camp.
Krtavarma, Kripa and Ashvatthama arrive at the place where Duryodhana was lying.
Duryodhana put a handful of dust on his head and told Ashvatthama “you take charge of the affairs now, destroy the progeny of Pandavas, beget a progeny through my wife and rule the kingdom”. He agreed and entered into the forest with Kripa and Krtavarma. He could not get sleep that night. He saw an owl killing hundreds of crows. This gave him an idea to kill the children of Pandavas. He went to Pandavas camp, Kripa and Krtavarma also followed him. Ashvatthama saw Rudra at then entrance of the camp. Rudra fought with him and swallowed all his weapons. Ashvatthama performed a sacrifice mentally to worship God Vishnu offering himself as a sacrificial animal. As a result of this Rudra gave him a sword and allowed him to enter the camp. Ashvatthama asked Kripa and Krtavarma to remain at the entrance and kill those who try to escape. He went in and killed Dhristadyumna, Shikandi and Yudhamanyu. He killed Draupadi’s sons and all other children of Pandavas excepting Sarvatrata, the son of Bhima through the daughter of Kashi King. This was possible because Rudra took this boy to Kailasa. After killing the kings of Panchala, Karushi and Kashi and their relatives, Ashvatthama set ablaze to the entire camp. However a chariot driver of Dhristadyumna escaped it. He went to Upaplavya and informed Draupadi about this tragic event. She came to Kauravas camp where Pandavas were resting and informed Bhima. He rushed in search of Ashvatthama. Ashvatthama had gone to Duryodhana taking the heads of sons of Draupadi. Duryodhana derived the satisfaction of retaliation and died. Ashvatthama, Kripa and Krtavarma left the place and moved in different directions Bhima arrived and chased Ashvatthama. Shri Krishna Yudhishtira and Arjuna also arrived. Ashvatthama employed Brahmastra against Bhima. Arjuna replied it by Brahmastra only with the prayer ‘let there be peace to Ashvatthama, to all living beings and to me’. Before, these Brahmastra confronted each other; Sri Vedavyasa intervened and stood between them. He asked them to withdraw their Brahmastra. Arjuna responded but Ashvatthama was not able to withdraw as he has lost his brahmacharya by agreeing to beget progeny through Duryodhana’s wife. As he was not able to withdraw Sri Vedavyasa asked him to hand over his crest gem. He gave it to Bhima and also said let the astra not affect the five Pandavas. Sri Vedavyasa suggested he should also say that it should not affect the only progeny of Pandavas. Ashvatthama insisted that he would not withdraw from him. Then Shri Krishna said “you do whatever you like but I will save the child”. He did save the child and cursed Ashvatthama to move on the head of the people of the people and not to be able to touch the ground and he would also have foul smell. He appealed to Shri Vedavyasa to grant him his darshana whenever he desired to see him. Shri Vedavyasa granted his request. Ashvatthama went away. While going he remembered his dream. In the dream he had killed the sons of Draupadi. Arjuna took an oath to kill him and took him to the camp. However, Draupadi asked Arjuna to release him. Arjuna took the gem from his head and released him. The dream is narrated in Bhagavata. After the close of the battle Pandavas returned to the capital city Hastinavati with Shri Krishna and Shri Vedavyasa
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Bhishma instructs Bhagavata dharma to Pandavas Twenty-ninth chapter narrates Bhishma’s instructions to Pandavas. There is an interesting discussion as to which is the highest Purushartha. Shri Vedavyasa coronated Yudhishtira as a King and Bhima as Yuvaraja. At this stage a Tridandi sanyasi charvaka arrived and censured Yudhishtira. He was a friend of Duryodhana. The sages cursed charvaka. He was burnt into ashes. Yudhishtira felt very unhappy for killing Bhishma. Drona and Duryodhana. He thought he had committed a great sin. He desired to give up his kingship and exile into the forest. Draupadi, Bhima and Arjuna tried to convince him that he had not committed any sin. He was not convinced. He went to Bhishma and requested him to teach Dharma. Shri Krishna said “I will teach being present in Bhishma. Let the credit of teaching dharma go to you “. Bhishma said “to follow Bhagavata dharma is highest Dharma”. He stated the essential points of Bhagavata dharma.i) Vishnu is supreme, everyone else is under his control ii) All other deities are his devotees iii) one should perform one’s duties without aiming at any benefit iv) one should not do anything that is opposed to the devotees of Vishnu. Further Bhishma stated the duties of the four classes of people. i) A Brahmana should perform his prescribed duties. He should not cause any pain to anyone. ii) A Brahmana should not earn his livelihood. He should maintain himself by teaching and priestly professions. iii) Kshatriya should protect the people. iv) A Vaisya should undertake agriculture, commerce, money lending etc. v) A shudra should serve the other three classes for his maintenance. vii) Brahmana has to disseminate knowledge. If a Brahmana is not available a Kshatriya or Vaisya may do so. vi) Men of first three classes can study all lore’s including Vedas.
Women can study Itihasa and Purana
Bhishma also explained the nature of three types of person’s viz. Satvika, Rajasa and Tamas. i) The tamasa persons do not consider Vishnu as supreme. They treat him as equal to other deities. They also do not consider Vishnu as possessing infinite number of qualities. They distinguish between his mularupa and avatararupa. They think that Vishnu undergoes pleasure and pain, birth and death in avatararupa. These people will fall into deep darkness. ii) Middle level people will be born again and again as men. iii) Those who have firm and right knowledge are superior people. These attain liberation.
Relative Superiority of Purushartha
After listening to this discourse, Yudhishtira asked: “Among the Purushartha which is superior”. Vidhura said “Dharma is superior”. Arjuna said Artha is superior. Artha is of two types’ viz., daiva and manush. The first is knowledge and the second is wealth. The first type of Artha is superior to Dharma. The second type also, if properly used will lead to dharma. Nakula and Sahadeva agreed with both Vidhura and Arjuna and they came to the conclusions that without any Artha dharma will not flourish and without dharma, Artha is not meaningful. Both support each other. However, Bhima argued that “Kama is superior. Kama is that which is most desired. Dharma and Artha are Purushartha when these are desired. Therefore these are also form of Kama. Jnana Bhakti etc that lead to the desired goal ate also a form of Kama. This Kama is highest if it is about dharma and artha, if it is about one of these two, then it is very inferior. Even the God is Kama, since attaining him is the most desired. Yudhishtira appreciated these views and declared that Moksha is the highest Purushartha.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Pandavas rule of the kingdom
30th chapter describes the Ashvamedha sacrifice performed by Yudhishtira. After Bhishma entered into his vasurupa, Yudhishtira performed the necessary rites. Sri Vedavyasa consoled Ganga and Yudhishtira. However, he continued to feel depressed. SriVedavyasa advised him to perform Ashvamedha sacrifice and rule the kingdom in a noble way. He lived in Pandu’s residence. Bhima lived-in Duryodhana’s residence with Draupadi and Kali. He also had twenty daughters of Vasudeva as his wives. Bhima selected five Brahmanas in each village and asked them to make villagers perform Ekadashi and other austerities. No one opposed Vishnu and dharma in his kingdom. No one violated the code of conduct. No one was unhappy in life. Kaliyuga looked like Kritayuga. Arjuna undertook victory tours. Without harassing he kept the other kings under his control. He lived in Dushyasana’s residence with Subhadra and Chitrangadha. Nakula was entrusted with the work of paying enumeration to servants. He lived with Satya’s daughter in the residence of Durmukha a son of Dhritarashtra. Sahadeva lived in the residence of Durmarshana with his wife the daughter of Jarasandha. He had been a bodyguard of Yudhishtira. During the rule of Pandavas, there were no diseases, no sorrow. There was good rain, cows gave plenty of milk, mountains, forests and rivers yielded good wealth. Kali and Bali were kept under control. Yudhishtira told Kali “It is the king who influences the time; the time does not influence the king. You do not play foul in respect of the border of countries, the pledged articles, the witness of majority, weighing balance, and measuring vessel. This is the tribute that you have to pay to the king”. Arjuna had forgotten the teachings of Gita. Hence, Sri Krishna taught him again in detail in Anugita. Shri Krishna returned to Dwaraka. On the way Udanka met him and proceeded to curse Shri Krishna for instigating Pandavas to kill his disciple Duryodhana. Shri Krishna consoled him and told him that Indra would give him nectar. He instructed Indra to give him nectar. Indra told Shri Krishna that he would deceive Udanka. Indra went to Udanka holding the nectar vessel in the place of Urine and asked Udanka to take it. Udanka thought it was made dirty and asked Indra to get away. Since, the nectar was meant for deities only Indra did not want to give it to Udanka.
Pandavas Undertake Ashvamedha sacrifice
Yudhishtira thought of performing Ashvamedha sacrifice. However, to gather necessary resources were a problem, He did not want to squeeze his subordinate rulers. At this stage Sri Vedavyasa appeared. He told Yudhishtira “at the meeting point of Himalaya and Meru lord Vishnu himself performed a great sacrifice. At that place there is a lot of wealth. You may go to that place and obtain the required wealth with permission of Parashurama. Pandavas went to the place accompanied by Sri Vedavyasa. Sri Vedavyasa pointed out the place of wealth. Pandavas bought it. Sri Vedavyasa and Pandavas returned to Hastinavati. Shri Krishna also arrived. At this time Uttara delivered a dead
child. Shri Krishna put life into it. Pandavas started Ashvamedha; they got a golden sacrificial hall built for it. Ashvamedha horse started moving. Arjuna followed it. He went round different kingdoms conquering the respective kings. He invited the kings to sacrifice. In the course of his victory journey Arjuna went to Manalur. His son Babruvahana’s mother Ulupi came from Pathala and asked him to fight. He started fighting. His flag was cut, the horse tied. He stood on the ground and fought. He employed Sammohana weapon and Arjuna became unconscious. Chitrangadha started blaming Ulupi. Ulupi bought Sanjivini and revived his consciousness. Arjuna went near Dwaraka Pradyumna took away the horse and invited Arjuna for fighting. Vasudeva intervened and allowed the horse to move. Yudhishtira asked Shri Krishna as to why Arjuna was always made to wander. Before Shri Krishna started explaining Draupadi winked at him and prevented him. The fact is, Shri Krishna, Satyabhama, Bhima and Draupadi only have perfect physical featured according to Samudrika Shastra. Arjuna’s head and body were little disproportionate. Ashvamedha sacrifice was started. The sages conducted the sacrifice under the guidance of Sri Vedavyasa. Vedavyasa, Shri Krishna and Parashurama graced the sacrifice by their presence. Brahma, Rudra, Indra etc deities were personally present. Gandharvas sang, apsaras dances and the sages debated on the philosophical issues. Bhimasena was presenting gifts. There was good feast with a variety of menus and plenty of milk and honey. The sacrifice was spread over three years with three main offerings. Since five Pandavas performed it for three years it resulted in sacrifice of fifteen years. At the close of the sacrifice, Pandavas Draupadi and other wives gifted away all the belongings excepting Mangalasutra. The priests accepted the gold and other gifts but desired to give the kingdom back to Pandavas. Pandavas were reluctant to accept the kingdom back. However, Sri Vedavyasa persuaded them to accept the kingdom. They agreed, At this juncture, a demon came in the form of a hare and said "your sacrifice and gifts are nothing compared with the gift of flour of a poor Brahmana, to Yama. Half of my body became golden when the holy waters of the gift were sprinkled. But here even after I took a full dip in the avabhritha water, the other side of my body did not become golden". Sri Krishna and the sages laughed at him. He became invisible and went into deep darkness. A Virtuous person attains greater results by his good deeds. The deeds performed by the devotees of Vishnu yield greater results. The devotion to Vishnu goes on increasing in the devotees of Vishnu in a greater way up to Brahma. In that assembly of deities and sages Yudhishtira requested Sri Krishna to teach him. Sri Krishna taught Vaisnava dharma.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti proceed to forest
31st chapter describes the rule of Pandavas, Dhritarashtra proceeding to forest and finally his departure from this world. When Pandavas were ruling the kingdom, a Brahmana approached Yudhishtira to have some help to perform the sacrifice. Yudhishtira asked him to next morning. As the Brahmana urgently needed the help he approached Bhimasena. He gave him his golden armlet studded with gems. The Brahmana left. Bhima arranged drum beating pretending to express his joy. On hearing Drum beat at night Yudhishtira asked Bhima the reason for it. Bhima said "My brother believes that he is certain to be alive tomorrow, this made me to express my joy by drum beating". Yudhishtira realized his mistake and decided not to postpone his dharmakarya. Bhima found that Dhritarashtra was still attached to worldly things in spite of losing all his sons. He wanted to enable him to develop detachment. He asked his servants to be indifferent to him. He humiliated him in many other ways. Vidhura also humiliated him by saying "you must be ashamed to live on the food given by Bhima".Then Dhritarashtra decided to retire to forest. However, Yudhishtira was reluctant to allow him. Sri Vedavyasa persuaded him to ask Dhritarashtra to retire to forest. Dhritarashtra asked for some money to perform the final rites of his sons. Bhima refused to give. However, Yudhishtira sent some money from his personal money through Vidhura. Dhritarashtra performed the final rites of his son and went to forest. Gandhari, Kunti, Vidura and Sanjaya accompanied him. They went to Vyasashrama. Pandavas used to visit it now and then. Vidhura who was Yam dharma himself born as Vidhura entered into Dharma raja that was also Yam dharma by yogic power. Sri Vedavyasa asked Dhritarashtra, Kunti and Pandavas to ask whatever they desired. Kunti and Pandavas asked for greater devotion to him. Kunti asked to ward off the sin committed by her giving birth to Karna before marriage. Dhritarashtra requested to enable him to see his dead sons. Sri Vedavyasa made them come down Viraswargaloka and enabled Dhritarashtra to see them. Pandavas saw Karna. After three years Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti were burnt down by the forest fire.
Mahabaratha Tatparya Nirnaya - Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi
Yadava fight, Sri Krishna returns to Vaikunta
32nd chapter describes the Satrayaga performed by Shri Krishna, the infight of Yadavas, Shri Krishna's return to Vaikunta and Pandavas departure from this world.Shri Krishna went to Kurukshetra and undertook a Satrayaga of twelve years duration. Sri Vedavyasa and PArashurama functioned as Sadasyas; Daksha Bhrigu etc served as priests. Brahma, Rudra, Indra etc dieties, Yadavas, Pandavas and the people from antariksha, swarga and even nagaloka participated. The sages assembled discussed the philosophical topics and arrived at right conclusions. Plenty of food was served. Whatever the participants desired all that was provided. The sacrifice was completed with avabhritha bath. After the purpose of Krishnavatara was over, Brahma, Rudra etc deities appealed to Shri Krishna to return to Vaikunta. In the meanwhile, Sage Garga had cursed Yadava they would fight against each other and would be killed by their own pestle. Yadava had offended him by presenting samba as pregnant woman asking him what kind of baby she would deliver. Garga was upset by their effort to deceive him and cursed that they would fight among themselves and would be killed by the very pestle placing which they made Samba appear as a pregnant woman. In order to implement this curse, Sri Krishna asked Yadava to move to Prabhasa Kshetra. At that place, due to curse they indulged in drinking and other vices and ultimately fought with grass which grew out of particles of the pestle against each other and died. Balarama left his mortal by Yoga. Shri Krishna sent his chariot driver Daruka to Pandavas to give them a him of his departure. He sat under Banyan tree placing his foot on his thigh. This looked like a red deer. A hunter by name Jara mistook took it to be a deer and hit it by his arrow. This Jara was the son of Vasudeva. He had put a piece of the pestle at the edge of the arrow. When the hunter realized that he had hit at the foot of Shri Krishna, he begged the pardon. Shri Krishna granted him svarga. Shri Krishna returned to Vaikunta. Shri Krishna remained in five places by his five forms: i) He remained by one form on earth for those who meditated upon him by Gopalamantra. ii) He remained in Suryamandala by his second form iii) He was worshipped by Shiva in his third form iv) He was worshipped by Brahma in Brahmaloka v) The fifth form is in Vaikunta. vi) Rukmini became invisible in fire. Satyabhama disappeared in the forest. Jambavati etc other wives of Shri Krishna also offered their mortal bodies in the fire. The wives of Balarama and others also offered their mortal bodies in the fire. Arjuna arrived and arranged for funeral rites.Arjuna moved out of Dwaraka with sixteen thousand and a hundred wives, children and some wealth of Shri Krishna. The city of Dwaraka was immersed in the sea. On the way some tribal persons kidnapped the wives of Shri Krishna. Arjuna tried to protect them. However, his gandiva failed him. He also forgot the astra. He remembered of Shri Krishna and regained his strength. He remembered Sri
Krishna and regained his strength. He pushed aside the tribal people and reached Kurukshetra with remaining wealth. Shri Vedavyasa arrived and consoled Arjuna. The wives of Shri Krishna observed Govinda Ekadashi and offered their mortal body into Sarasvati river. Arjuna made Vajra the son of Aniruddha the Ruler of Saurasena country and Indraprastha. Pandavas coronated PArikshit as the king. He destroyed the tribal people who had kidnapped the wives of Shri Krishna Pandavas final journey Pandavas decided to undertake their final journey from this world. Agni met them and asked Arjuna to abandon Gandiva. Arjuna threw it in the sea. When they reached Badarikashrama, the bodies of Draupadi, Sahadeva and others fell one after the other. As they did not desire to go to svarga with the mortal body they fell one after the other. However Bhima asked Yudhishtira the reason for their fall. Yudhishtira explained that Draupadi's drawback was that she liked Arjuna more than the others; Sahadeva thought that he knew the royal policies better; Nakula considered him beautiful, Arjuna said he would kill all enemies in a single day but was not able to do so. Bhima’s drawback was, he ate too much. These were really not drawbacks. They had dropped their body by yogic power. After Bhima and others went to their respective world, Yudhishtira proceeded further along with a dog. Then a divine chariot appeared before him. HE was asked to enter into it. He said "let the dog also come with me. I do not wish to come without the dog". The dog was Yama himself. Yama appeared in his true form and appreciates Yudhishtira's compassion. Yudhishtira got into the chariot. He moved beyond Viraswargaloka and came up to Sankalpa Swarga. He saw Duryodhana and his brothers happily seated. He was upset. He wondered as to how those sinful persons could be here. He asked the whereabouts Draupadi and his brothers. He was taken to a place where he found them. He found that it was a dark place with foul smell. He heard the cries of his brothers. It was painful. A little later Indra etc deities arrived. The darkness disappeared. The foul smell disappeared. The cries were not heard. The deities told Yudhishtira "you experienced all this as a result of your telling a lie at the time of Drona's death. This is really Upasvarga: a place near Swarga. Your brothers are very happy”. The deities suggested to him that he should leave his mortal body by immersing in Ganga. He left the human body and obtained a divine body. He saw Bhima among the Maruts near Mukhyaprana. He saw Draupadi by his side. Yudhishtira embraced Yamadharma, became similar to him, and sat by his side. Pandavas obtained their original form. Drona and others also attained their original form. The demons will remain in Viraswargaloka for four thousand and three hundred years. Then they will be born on the earth, proopgate against the supreme God and will go to deep darkness. After four thousand and three hundred year Bhima will be born as a Brahmana and preach the right doctrines. The demons also have hierarchy in respect of sorrow. Kali has highest sorrow. Vayu and Bharati have highest devotion to the supreme God and derive highest happiness in the liberated state. This is made clear in the Vedic hymn, "bhushan yodhi babhrushu" Ballittha tadvapase" etc After one thousand years in Kaliyuga some demons were born and tried to get good knowledge. It is the responsibility of the deities to see that the demons do not get the right knowledge. Hence they appealed to Supreme God to intervene. The God appeared as a child Suddhodhana. He declared himself as Buddha and preached Shoonyavada. Similarly Jina also preached wrong knowledge. In spite of this some pious people continued to acquire right knowledge. The demons Krodhavashas became intolerant of this and were born to preach wrong knowledge. To counteract these
Sri Madhwa will be born. At the end of Kaliyuga God will appear as son of Vishnuyasa in Sambala village. He is also called Kalki as he tortures Kali. The name Kalki also means that he is of purnashukha and purnagnana. He will ride on the horse; kill those who are against the supreme God. Purnapragna also known as Anandathirtha composed this work as per the orders of Sri Vedavyasa. He is the chief disciple. He has perfect knowledge of Veda, Pancharatra, Brahmasutra, Upanisats, and Itihasapurana. This work is nirnayaka while Mahabharatha is nirneya. It is difficult to arrive at the correct purpose of Shastra without reconciling seemingly conflicting statements. Brahma sutras are composed for this purpose. However, some commentators wrongly interpreted the very Brahma sutras. Harisarvotthama doctrines stated in them are ignored and Jivabrahmiakya is thrust on them. Anandathirtha correctly interprets the Sutra, Upanishads and establishes Harisarvotthama. He has composed this work to correctly bring out the purpose of the Mahabharata. He is the third incarnation of Mukhyaprana. His three incarnation’s viz. Hanuma, Bhima, Madhwa is mentioned in Veda. He carried the message of Sri Rama to Sita in Hanuman incarnation. He destroyed the evil men in Bhima incarnation and provided right knowledge through this work in the incarnation of Sri Madhwa
Mahamahopadhyaya Prof. K.T. Pandurangi Formerly Prof. of Sanskrit Bangalore University Upakulapati, Poornaprajna Vidyapeetha Bangalore.