ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 19-03-2016
ஸ்ரீ வைஷ்ணவ குரு பரம்பரை Part - 2
ஸ்ரீ வைஷ்ணவ குரு பரம்பரை Part - 2
namo vedAnta vedyAya jagatmangaLa hetave yasya vAkamruta sArapUritam bhuvanatrayam
Sri Nanjeeyar was the disciple of Sri Parasara Bhattar, the son of Sri kUrattAzhvAn and the
acharya of Sri Nampillai. He was the first acharya to write commentaries for both Thiruvaymozhi as well as prabandhams of other Azhvars. His commentaries are the earliest ones that have a style of explaining each word
and phrase that the AzhvArs use in the pAsurams, and then quoting other teachers in detailing the meanings.
It is believed that Nanjeeyar lived from 1113 CE to 1208 CE (95 years). He was born in the city of Thirunarayanapuram, near Mysore in Karnataka. He grew up in the town of Kankorai. He was the direct disciple of Parasara Bhattar and it was to him that Bhattar handed over the stewardship of the religion. One of Nanjeeyar’s greatest contributions was the identification (and anointment) of srI nampiLLai as the next leader of the sampradAyam.
Nanjeeyar’s original name was Madhavacharyar. Since he had outstanding knowledge of the Vedantas, he was generally referred to as “vEdAnti. He was renowned as an acharya in the Advaitic tradition initially. Swami Ramanuja, before leaving this world called Bhattar and told him about Vedanti and asked that Bhattar correct him and being him into the Srivaishnava fold. This shows the greatness of Nanjeeyar. Ramanuja had already done a similar act with the advaitin Yajnamurti, and gave him the name Arulala Perumal Emperumanar. However, due to old age Ramanuja was unable to do the same with Madhavacharyar and therefore gave the task to Bhattar.
As Vedanti, Nanjeeyar lived with great fame in Thirunarayanapuram. Once a Brahmin from Srirangam met him and told him about Bhattar’s greatness. From that time on, Vedanti was eager to meet Bhattar. When the brahmin met Bhattar and told him the incident, Bhattar aked him what he told Vedanti. The Brahmin replied that he told Vedanti that Bhattar knew all sastras. Bhattar then told the Brahmin that he should have told Vedanti that Bhattar also knew Thirunedunthandagam. The next time the Brahmin met Vedanti he repeated that to him. Vedanti was then wondering about this work that he had not come across before.
Bhattar then later traveled to Thirunarayanapuram to challenge Vedanti. He went there in a palanquin, surrounded by his disciples, in a procession. Upon seeing that the local people told Bhattar that he would not be able to meet Vedanti if he went like that. They advised him that Madhavacharyar was in the habit of feeding brahmins each day and if he went as one of those brahmins, he will able to meet him quickly. Therefore, Bhattar dressed as a poor brahmin and went to his place. There Bhattar met Madhavacharyar who asked him why he was waiting there. Bhattar replied that he was waiting for some alms. Madhavacharyar asked him why he was not eating with the other brahmins then. Bhattar replied that he did not come there for food but that he wanted the alm of philosophical debate. Madhavacharyar instantly recognized that it was Bhattar who was thus challenging him.
He accepted the challenge and a debate raged for nine days between them. On the tenth day, Vedanti agreed that he had lost and that the interpretation of the Vedas according to Visistadvaitham was the true philosophy. He surrendered at the divine feet of Bhattar who then performed pancha samskaram to him and returned to Srirangam.
Madhavacharyar then continued to live in Thirunarayanapuram with his two wives and all his wealth. Once, a few brahmins came to his house and his wives sent them away without food. Upon returning to his house and hearing the news, Madhavacharyar grew greatly dejected with his wives in their failure to feed the poor. He therefore divided his wealth into three portions, gave two of the portions to his wives and took one portion to give to Bhattar for service to the Lord. He then renounced this world and took sanyashrama dharma and left for Srirangam to meet Bhattar.
On the way, he was met by Sri Anandahzvan, a disciple of Ramanuja. Anandazhvan told him that if he continued to live as usual by eating when hungry, taking a bath when sweating and surrendered at Bhattar’s feet, that he would not be rejected from paramapadham. There was no need to become a sanyasi. Anandazhvan then blessed him saying that having done it he should now be born in Thirumantra and grow in Dvaya and recite nothing but Dvaya.
When Vedanti reached Srirangam he fell at the feet of Bhattar. Bhattar then picked him up calling him “nam jeeyar” (Our Jeeyar) and embraced him. From that day forward, Vedanti came to be known as Nanjeeyar. This event must have occurred around 1137 or 1138 CE.
Nanjeeyar then continued to live with Bhattar in Srirangam and became a close disciple to him.
There are countless stories in Guru Parampara Prabhavam, Vyakhyanams, Varttha Mala, etc which
recount events of interaction between Bhattar and Nanjeeyar. These events bring out the best in the Srivaishnava Sampradhayam. Nanjeeyar would ask very many questions to
Bhattar and Bhattar would answer them with amazing dexterity. So much so, it became known in the sampradhayam that there was no one to ask questions like
Nanjeeyar and that there was no one to answer them like Bhattar. These stories also show the immense devotion that
Nanjeeyar had for his acharya, Bhattar.
After Bhattar attained paramapadham, Nanjeeyar took over the leadership of the sampradhayam in
Srirangam. At this time he selected Nambur Varadacharyar, a disciple of his, to write down his works in silk sheets.
He then gave his works in palm leaves to Varadacharyar who then left for his home town of Nambur to write them
down. Varadacharyar lost the palm leaves as he tried to swim across the Cauvery river. As he was
mouring the great loss, the Lord appeared hin his dream and told him to write them again from his
When Varadacharyar returned the silk sheets to Nanjeeyar, Nanjeeyar was amazed to see that the sheets contained his words but also additional references that he had made in discourses but had not put down in writing. When he questioned Varadacharyar about the same, Varadacharyar fell at his feet and told him what had happened. Nanjeeyar then picked him up and embraced him and called him “nam piLLai” (Our Son). From that day on, Nambur Varadacharyar was known as nampiLLai. NampiLLai would go on to inherit the sampradhaya leadership from Nanjeeyar and become the next great acharya of the tradition.
When Nanjeeyar was old and not well, a person called Petri came to see him and asked him what he wished for. Nanjeeyar replied that he would like to hear Arayar recite the Periya Thirumozhi pasuram
“thUviriyamalaruzhakki” and also see the front and behind beauty of Namperumal as He comes in a procession.
This was arranged for and Varamtharum Perumal Arayar recited the pasuram. It is said that when Arayar recited the fourth pasuram of the pathigam, Nanjeeyar spoke a few words about its meanings and attained paramapadham. Guru Parampara also records that Nanjeeyar saw Namperumal in a procession as per his wish and then speaking a few words of
good advice to his disciples including Nampillai, he reached His abode.
Nanjeeyar was the first acharya after Thirukkurugaippiran Pillan, to write vyakhyanam in maNi pravALam
(a mixture of Tamil and Saskrit) for Azhvars prabandhams. It is interesting to note that while Pillan wrote his work under the order of Ramanuja, Nanjeeyar did his work under the orderof Parasara Bhattar. In Upadesa
Ratthinamalai, Manavala Mamunigal mentions that Nanjeeyar wrote several vyakhyanams -
“nanjeeyar seytha viyAkkiyaigaL nAliraNdukku”.
His works are:
• Thiruvaymozhi OnbathinAyirappadi Vyakhyanam
• Thiruppavai IrAyirappadi Vyakhyanam
• Kanninun Sirutthambu Vyakhyanam
• Thiruppallandu Vyakhyanam
• Vyakhyanams for the Thiruvanthathis
• Saranagati Gadya Vyakhyanam
• Of these works, only OnbathinAyirappadi Vyakhyanam and Kanninun Sirutthambu Vyakhyanam are available now.
theNdiraisoozh thiruvarangam sezhikkavanthOn vAzhiyE seemAthavanennumselvanAr vAzhiyE paNdaRaimaRaith thamizhpporuLaip pagaravanthOn vAzhiyE panguniyil uththiranAL pAruthiththAn vAzhiyE ondodiyAL kalavithanai ozhiththittAn vAzhiyE onbathin AyirapporuLai Othumavan vAzhiyEeaNdisaiyum eNdisaiyum seerbattar iNaiyadiyOn vAzhiyE ezhilperugum nanjeeyar inidhu
vedArtthasArAmruta pUramakruyam |
vedArtthasArAmruta pUramakruyam |
AdAyavarshantamaham prapadye kAruNya pUrNamkalivairi dAsam ||
Sri Nampillai was the disciple of Sri Nanjeeyar and the acharya of Sri Periyavaccan Pillai. His vyakhyanam “eedu
36000ppadi”, popularly known as just “eedu” is considered the greatest vyakhyanam written forSwami Nammazhvar’s Thiruvaymozhi. It was this vyakhyanam that Swami Manavala Mamunigal presented as a series of discourses in a period of one year in Srirangam at the end of which Azhagiya Manavalan Himself delivered the “Srishailesha Dayapatram” thaniyan
Sri Nampillai (Courtesy: Srivaishnavan.com)
Nampillai was born in the city of Nambur. His original name was Varadarajar. He was born in thestar Kartthigai in the month Kartthigai – the same as Thirumangai Azhvar. Since he was born asthe amsam of Thirumangai Azhvar, he was also known as thiru-k-kalikanRi dAsar.
He then moved to Srirangam and was one of the many disciples of Nanjeeyar, who was the direct disciple of Sri Parasara Bhattar and to whom Bhattar had handed over the sampradhayam beforeattaining paramapadham. Through Bhattar’s grace, Nanjeeyar had written a vyakhyanamcalled “9000ppadi” for
Nammazhvar’s Thiruvaymozhi. He then decided to have this work writtendown in silk sheets and was looking for someone who could do a good job of it. He asked hisdisciples who that person could be and they pointed to Nambur Varadarajar. Nanjeeyar calledVaradarajar and asked him to write something down which he did. Nanjeeyar appreciated his
writing but was wondering how he could let one not initiated into the sampradhayam write Bhagavad Vishayam. Varadarajar then fell at Jeeyar’s divine feet and requested him to initiate himinto the sampradhayam. Jeeyar felt kindness in his divine heart and performed pancha samskaramfor Varadarajar and taught him the 9000ppadi in full. Then he handed over the 9000ppadimanuscript to him and told him to rewrite them in silk sheets. Varadrajar then took the manuscriptsand obtained permission from Nanjeeyar to go back to his home town and rewrite them.
On the way back to his home town, he had to cross the Cauvery river and at one place he had toswim across it. So, he put the manuscript in a towel and wrapped it around his head and started toswim. At that time, a wave came and took away the towel and manuscript. Varadarajar got to the other side and became greatly distressed that he had lost the manuscript. However, he managed torewrite the whole script again from memory, as Nanjeeyar had taught him the whole work, andbeing one of great scholarship added additional references and meanings here and there in the workthat added to its greatness. He then took the work back to Jeeyar who upon reading it was amazedto see these beautiful additions to it. When he asked about it to Varadarajar, he fell at Jeeyar’s feetand told
him the whole story. At which time Nanjeeyar picked him up and embracing him called him “nam piLLai” (Our son) and gave him the name “thiruk-kalikanRi dAsar”.
From that day onward, Nambur Varadarajar came to be known as nampiLLai.
Nampillai then never left Nanjeeyar’s divine company and continued to perform all kinds of service to him. When Nanjeeyar completed one hundred Thiruvaymozhi Upanyasams, Nampillai performed sadAbishekam ceremony for him.
Nampillai continued to learn more and more from Nanjeeyar and his fame began to spread. During this time, disciples such as Periyavaccan Pillai, Vadakku Thiruveethi Pillai, Pinbazhagiya Perumal Jeeyar, Eeyunni Madhava Perumal gathered at Nampillai’s feet. Seeing this Nanjeeyar was very pleased.
Seeing Nampillai’s fame and the great number of disciples he had, Kanthadai Thozhappar, the grandson of Mudhaliyandan, felt great jealousy and one day severely reprimanded him in front of Namperumal. Nampillai feeling great sadness left for his home. When Thozhappar returned to his home, his wife who had heard about the student was greatly distressed and did not perform any of her duties. Seeign this, Thozhappar asked her why she was ignoring him and her duties – something she had never done before. She replied that he had insulted Nampillai who is verily the reincarnation of Nammazhvar; and having done that, he is not even regretting the act. So, she wanted no further association with him who had committed a great bhAgavata apacharam. At which time, Thozhappar recognized his great error and asked her how he could rectify it. She replied that he should seek Nampillai’s pardon. He agreed and asked her to go along with him as he was ashamed to go alone. She agreed and they both came out to go to Nampillai’s home.
In the meantime, Nampillai who had gone home from the temple sent all his disciples to their homes, did not take any food all day and in the evening covering himself with a blanket went alone to Thozhappar’s home and stayed there in his front gate.
When Thozhappar and his wife came out they were amazed to see Nampillai in front of their home. Thozhappar then enquired if Nampillai had come there to commit a folly for what happened at the temple. Nampillai fell at his feet and replied that he was there to seek his redemption for having caused such grief in the heart of the grandson of Mudhaliyandan that he had to say these things in the temple. Upon which Thozhappar picked up Nampillai and embrazing him said that he had thought that Nampillai was the acharya to only a few disciples till that day and that he has now realized that he is the acharya to the whole world. From that day forward, Nampillai came to be known as Lokacharyar.
Naduvil Thiruveethi Pillai Bhattar, a grandson of Kuratthazhvan, had initially succumbed to jealousy but later had seeked Nampillai’s divine feet and taken him as his acharya. Having listened to Nampillai’s discourses on Thiruvaymozhi, he wrote them down in an extensive work of 125000 padi’s. Upon finding that, Nampillai said that he should not have written such and extensive work without asking for his acharya’s permission and destroyed the manuscript.
Nampillai then asked his disciple Periyavaccan Pillai to write a vyakhyanam for Thiruvaymozhi and thus was born 24000ppadi.
Later Vadakku Thiruveethi Pillai wrote down Nampillai’s discourses on Thiruvaymozhi as a manuscript and showed it to Nampillai. Nampillai saw that it was neither short nor long and was written beautifully in 36000 padi’s. He appreciated Vadakku Thiruveethi Pillai’s effort but told him that he should not have done it without his permission. Therefore, he took the manuscript and hid them in his home. Later Eeyunni Madhava Perumal prayed to Namperumal for a long time and asked for the manuscript. Namperumal then asked Nampillai to give the manuscript to Madhava Perumal and Nampillai accepting the divine order did the same.
Nampillai continued spreading the sampradhayam for many years. After which, laying his head in Naduvil Thiruveethi Pillai Bhattar’s lap and his feet in Pinbazhagiya Perumal Jeeyar’s lap, he focused his mind on Nanjeeyar‘s feet and attained His divine abode.
Eedu 36000ppadi Vyakhyanam for Thiruvaymozhi
thEmaruvum sengamalath thiruththALgaL vAzhiyE thiruvaraiyil pattAdai sErmarungum vAzhiyE thAmamaNi vadamArvum purinUlum vAzhiyE thAmaraikkai yiNaiyazhagum thadampuyamum vAzhiyE pAmaruvun thamizhvEdham payilpavaLam vAzhiyE pAdiyaththin poruLthannaip pagarnAvum vAzhiyE nAmanuthal mathimugamum thirumudiyum vAzhiyE nampiLLai vadivazhakum nAdORum vAzhiyE
kAthaludan nanjeeyar kazhalthozhuvOn vAzhiyE kArththigaik kArththigai uthiththa kalikanRi vAzhiyE pOthamuda nAzhvAr soRporuLuraippOn vAzhiyE pUthUrAn pAdiyaththaip pugazhumavan vAzhiyE mAthakavAl evvuyirkkum vAzhvaLiththAn vAzhiyE mathiLarangar Olakkam vaLarththittAn vAzhiyE nAthamuni ALavandhAr nalampugazhvOn vAzhiyE nampiLLai thiruvadigaL nAdORum vAzhiyE
sri VADAKKU THIRUVEEDHI PILLAI
Sri Vadakku Thiruveedhi Pillai occupies an important place in our Acharya Sampradhya. Though he has not rendered any original work, he was the best exponent of Nampillai’s commentary to Thiruvaimozhi;
Birth place: Srirangam ,Vadakku thiruveedhiyil Thirumaligai.
Year of birth: sarvajit year, aani month, Krishashtami, svAthi star (1168 A.D). (This information is based on PERIYA THIRUMUDI ADAIVU, attached to 6000 ppadi Guruparampara prabhavam. There is another version mentioning the year as pramaadhi)
Family: Vadamal, Mudumbai, Sreevatsa Ghotram Yajus saka,Apasthambha Sutram.
Name: Dravidavedhartha Desikar, Sri Krishnapather.
Sons: Pillai Lokachariar and Azhakia manavala perumal Nayanar
Azhakiamanavala perumal Nayanar.
Disciples: Pillai Lokacharyar, Azhzkiya manavala perumal nayanar, Koorakulothamadasar.
Works: EEDU 36000 to THIRUVAIMOZHI as narrated by Nampillai.
Life span:97 years.
He is one of the favorite disciples of Nampillai. He maintained celibacy, though married. One fine day, when Acharya Nampillai was taking rest,. his disciple Ammi , mother of Vadakkuthiruveedhi pillai, complained to Nampillai that her son is not conducting a married life; rather is afraid of approaching his wife, complaining that he was encountering her as a serpent when she was with her in privacy. She requested Nampillai to bless her son with a ward to the family. Nampillai consoled her and advised her to bring her daughter in law after she has finished a monthly periods. As directed the daughter was brought in the presence of Nampillai and blessed her.
Nampillai also advised Vadakku Thiruveedhi pillai to spend the night with his wife and also advised him that he will be doing a righteous duty as a grahasatha. VTVPillai complied with the advice ofhis Acharya. In due course, his wife became pregnant and a son was born in the family. He is the famous Pillai Lokacharya.
Nampillai rendered KALASHEBHAM during the day and he had directed Peria vachan pillai to record them. VTVPillai also recorded them without permission. One day he invited his Acharya Nampillai for dinner. Nampillai consented and visited his house. He was to do Thiruvaradhanam there..But, he saw the bundle of palm leaves containing his discourses. He enquired about it. VTV Pillai informed that he has rendered his work without any addition or alteration. Nampillai was not satisfied. He said that you do not have my permission to do so and it is not correct for a disciple to behave in this fashion. VTVpillai apologized and begged his pardon. He represented that he has done so only to remember the discourses. Thereupon, Nampillai directed him to do the Thiruvardhanam and he began to study the record. The reading was continued even after dinner.The scrutiny of the record was assisted by Periavachan pillai and Sriyazhvanapillai The recording was very fine and it was admired by all. They exclaimed that it was like a decorated elephant marching.
Still , as it was done without permission, it was taken over by Nampillai. Later it was handed over to EEynni Madhavar (Sriyazhvanapillai) by Nampillai. From him it came in to usage in due course.(Though Madhavachariyar got the EEDU, it was handed over to his son Padmanabhan and from him to NaloorPillai. From him it was taught to Thiruvaimozhi Pillai.Upto this position, the preaching was in a restricted manner. When it was
taught to Manavala Mamunigal, it began to spread widely.
Manavalamamunikal rendered Kalashebam for one year in the presence of Lord Renganatha and Periapiratti. It was the desire of the Lord to hear EEDU Kalashebam from Manavalamamunkal. Thus he became the Acharya for the Lord and was honored with the THANIAN “SREESAILESA DAYAPATRAM. This happened in the year 1371.A.D.
There was another incident in the life of VTV Pillai. He was fortunate to have his recordings spared to be spread for future. But, one Naduvil Thiruveedhi Bhatter in the famliy of Koorathazhvan, also did the recordings of Nampillai without his permission. When it was presented to Nampillai, he was reprimanded for his behaviour. It is not proper for the disciple to record or write without the prior permission of his master. Further more, Nampillai observed that it was lengthy one. Such practices will set bad example in the relationship of master and disciple. He drenched it in water and allowed it to be eaten by white ants.
The contemporaries of VTVPillai are Ramanujarya, son of Nampillai Kandhadai Thozhappar Naduvil Thiruveedhi Bhattar Periya vachan pillai Eeyunni Madhavar Pinbhazhzkiya perumal Jeeyar Vanmamalai dasar
Salutation for Sri Vadakku-th thiruveedhi-p-piLLai:
Sree Krishna paada paadaabhjE namaami sirasaa sadhaa | Yatprasaada prabhaavEna sarva sidhdhirabhoon mama ||
Sri PILLAI LOKACHARYA
LokAchArya guravE krushNapAdaSya SUnavE I SamSArabhOgiSandashta jIvajIvAtavE nama: II
Sri Manavala Mamunigal (MM) composed a work called Upadesarattinamalai to commemorate the lives and works of Azhwars and Acharyas. In this great composition he has singled out one acharyan , in honor of whom, he devoted several pasurams. This acharyan so revered by Sri MM is Sri Pillai Lokacharya (also known as Ulagariyan).
Sri PL was born in 1205 AD on the occasion of Aippasi, Thiruvonam. Those were days when Sri Vaishnavam flourished under the able leadership of the august Sri Nampillai. His disciples included several luminaries; prompting the oft quoted “Nampillai ghosthiyO, Namperumal ghostiyO”. The most prominent amongst these disciples were Sri Vadakku Thiruveethip Pillai (VTP) and Sri Periya Vaachaan Pillai (PVP), who authored the two most authoritative commentaries on Sri Nammazhwar’s Thiruvaymozhi, viz. muppattiarayirapadi (36,000) or Edu and the irupattinalayirapadi (24,000) vyakhyanams respectively. Sri VTP was blessed with two sons. The eldest of the two was Sri PL and the second was Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal (AMP) Nayanar. Sri VTP named his eldest son after his acharya Sri Nampillai who was also known as Lokacharya or Ulagariyan. To gain the quintessence of Emberumanar’s darsanam very clearly one need to look no further than the works of Sri PVP, VTP, PL and AMP Nayanar.
Sri Pillai Lokacharyar
Both brothers grew up and lived in Srirangam. They learned from their father as well as from other contemporary acharyas like Sri Nampillai. It is said that when they were young they overheard their father expressing some regrets about gruhastasrama. This incident left an indelible impression on the young minds and as a consequence they remained brahmacharis throughout their lives and rendered magnificent kainkaryams to Namperumal and bhagavathas.
Sri PL would be considered a social revolutionary in that he was the first acharyan who wrote independent works in the vernacular language that expounded the Vedanta and on account of his views on caste. In the latter instance he was a blazing visionary and pioneer, the likes of which finds no rival in the past or present, saving his younger brother. He very staunchly held that ALL that mattered was a bhagavatha’s devotion to Perumal and that any consideration of the caste of a bhagavatha constituted a GRAVE apacharam!!! (Sin)
Sri PL was a practical acharya who practiced what he preached. Included amongst his disciples was a Harijan by the name of Vilancolaipillai. This mahatma had several Brahmin bhagavatas as disciples. To fully grasp the immensity of Sri PL’s views and actions, they must be evaluated in the timeframe in which they occurred, ie, almost 800 years ago. Understandably then, several baghavathas in Srirangam took exception to Sri PL’s position. These objections reached a level of criticality that in turn necessitated Sri AMP Nayanar’s having to formally vindicate his brother. However, Sri PL never soft peddled these issues!!! He composed several works in which he very directly and explicitly covers these issues. Notable amongst the many works that were composed for the benefit of future generations by this supremely benevolent acharyan are eighteen in Manipravala style, that are called Ashtadasa Rahasyangal, and that leave no aspect of Visistadvaita uncovered.
Srirangam was sacked in 1327 by Mohemedan invaders led by Malik Kafur. In what is certainly a clear expression of “Gods will hath no why”, some parama bhagavathas like Sri PL, Sri Sudarsana suri and Swami Vedanta Desikan had to suffer extreme hardships. What follows is a description of some the details of the raid and are heart wrenching. In that catastrophe, several (12,000 according to one account) Sri Vaishnavas lost their lives. The leading acharyas like Sri PL and Swami Desikan (Sri Sudarsana suri was very aged) provided outstanding courage, conviction and leadership. With no thoughts about their own lives or well being, they planned on a course of action the fruits of which we enjoy today.
Sri PL, out of concern for harm to Periya Perumal’s and Namperumal’s thirumeni, had a brick wall built before Periya Perumal’s archa vigraham, thereby deceiving the invaders. He physically carried Namperumal and fled Sriranagam, not out of concern for himself but out of extreme concern for Namperumal! The mental image of the advanced Sri PL fleeing Srirangam, courting countless hardships to avert any harm to Namperumal brings tears to one’s eyes. Finally, upon reaching the village of Jyothiskudi (near Madhurai) and in the secure knowledge that Namperumal was atleast momentarily out of harms way, Sri PL ascended home to Paramapadam. The very aged Sri Sudarsana suri did not survive the attack.
Swami Desikan undertook to protect Sri Sudarsana suri’s sons and the manuscript of Sutraprakasika (Sri Suri’s commentary on Sri Bhasyam). Thus armed Swami Desikan escaped to Satyamangalam in Karnataka after a very tortuous journey.
Sri PL was an extremely compassionate acharyan who undertook to write several treatises for the benefit of posterity. Most of the acharyas prior to Sri PL only commented on the works of their predecessors. However, Sri
PL wrote independent treatises like Tattva Trayam for instance,that expouds Vedanta in the vernacular. Sri PL
foresaw that in generations to come people, under the influence of Kali, would abandon traditional studies in the
Sanskrit language. Thus, magnificent works like the Sri Bhasyam would be beyond the ken of most mortals. To remedy the situation, Sri PL composed eighteen works that are collectively referred to as Ashtadasa Rahasyangals in Manipravalam. These include:
This work is considered as Sri PL’s magnum opus. As the name implies this work is intended to be an ornament of sayings from purvacharyas. This great work consists of 465 aphorisms that are organized into four ‘prakaranas’ or chapters. Six key concepts are covered that include:
Purusakaravaibhava (Greatness of Intercessor) Sadhanasya Guarava (Greatness of Means)
Adhikari Kritya (Duties of Prapanna)
Satgurupasevana (Dependence on the Eminent Guru) Ahetuki Haridaya (Spontaneous Grace of the Supreme Lord)
Guror Upayata (The Role of the Preceptor)
Sri MM devotes six stanzas in Upadesarattinamalai to SVB.
This work deals with the three fundamental real entities (tatvas) of the Visistadvaita system of Vedanta. These entities include cit (soul), acit (matter) and Isvara (the Lord). This work is considered to be a mini Sri Bhasyam.
The rahasyas that a mumukshu or aspirant for liberation needs to comprehend are covered in this work. The rahasyas are three (rahasyatrayam) in number and include : a. Tirumantaram (also known as Mulamantaram or
Astaksara), b. Dwayam (or Mantra Ratnam), and c. Charamaslokam (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, verse 66). These mantras contain knowledge about the soul’s essential nature (svarupa), the means(upaya) and the goal (purusartha). In the introduction to Mumukshuppadi, it is said that amongst the works of Sri Pl that deal with the
three rahasyas, the Yadrcchikappadi was too short, the Parantappadi was too long, and the Sriyapatippadi though it had neither of the two faults, was full of Sanskrit quotes (making its comprehension difficult for the lay person).
Therefore with a desire to compose one more work which would avoid these problems, Sri PL wrote the
Mumukshuppadiafter all others.
This work deals with the five prerequisites for the attainment of any goal or artha. These include:
The realization of oneself (svasvarupa).
The understanding of the essential form of the Supreme (parasvarupa).
The understanding of the essential form of the goals (purusharthasvarupa). The understanding of the essential form of the means (upayasvarupa).
The understanding of the essential nature of the obstructions (virodhisvarupa).
This work which consists of four prakarnas or chapters, deals with journey of a muktatma from earth to Sri
Vaikuntam. Details of the where the soul stops along the way and its reception in Sri Vaikuntam etc. are provided.
This work discusses how the Lord’s grace is the basis for all good things in this world as well as in the next world.
The necessary qualifications for one who surrenders himself/herself to the Lord are covered in this work.
In this work the author gives a consise definition of the Dwaya mantram and explains how theentire
Tiruvaymozhi of Sri Nammazhwar is an exposition of this mantram. Sri PL relates every word of the Dwayam to the ten chapters of the Tiruvaymozhi and quotes profusely from the latter to document the relavent correlation.
This work deals with how people who become completely immersed in worldly pleasures and turn away from the path of God, return to the Lord with the guidance of an Acharyan.
This work deals with the nine points that a person who surrenders must understand properly: themselves as a whole, their body, their relatives, other people, gods other than Sriman Narayana, Srivaishnavas, Acharyas, Piratti, and the Lord.
This work deals with the nine kinds of relationships that a person has with Sriman Narayana as shown in the
Tirumantram. These include:
The relationship between father and son.
The relationship between the protector and protected. The relationship between master and servant.
The relationship between husband and wife.
The relationship between the person who understands and the object that is understood. The relationship between the owner and his property.
The relationship of body and soul.
The relationship of the thing that is dependent and the things on which it depends.
The relationship between the person who enjoys and the thing enjoyed.
Sri PL says that the understanding of the relationships is essential for salvation. These nine kinds of relationships are interlinked.
This work is a brief summary of the rahasyatrayam, but the order of the rahsyas has been changed (in comparison to Mummukshupati) to Tirumantram, Charamaslokam and Dwayam.
Paranta means widespread or spreading out. This work deals exhaustively with the rahasyatrayam.
This is yet another work on the rahasyatrayam. This work contains too many Sanskrit terms for the ordinary vernacular reader.
This work deals with the tattva trayam. It also presents refutation of the arguments of rival schools in order to establish the Visistadvaita definition of the tattva trayam.
This work deals with the Dwaya mantran.
This work deals with the Charama slokam.
This work deals with the “OM” in the Tirumantram.
Azhvar Emberumanar Jeeyar Thiruvadigale Saranam