செவ்வாய், 28 ஜூலை, 2015

Yaksha Prasna Sanskrit English

ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 29-07-2015

யக்ஷ ப்ரஸ்னம்

Yaksha Prasna Sanskrit English

Yaksha Prasna is an episode taken from Mahabharata. It is a dialogue between Yudhishthira and Yama, the lord of Death who disguises as a Yaksha. In this Yudhishthira gives amazing and enlightening answers to very difficult questions asked by Yama.
During the time when the Pandavas were living in the forest, a deer took away the stick used to make fire from the sage’s home in the forest in its antlers. The saint tried to recover it but could not. He then requested the Pandavas (sons of Pandu) to trace the deer by its hoof marks and recover it. The Pandavas followed the hoof marks of the deer throughout the day and reached deep in the forest. Dharma Puthra the eldest of the Pandavas became very tired and wanted to drink some water before carrying on the chase any further. Sahadeva the youngest brother volunteered to bring the water. He spotted a lake near by. The lake was bare of any living beings except a crane. When Sahadeva tried to drink water from the lake, the crane spoke to him, Oh Sahadeva, the water of this lake is poisonous, if you drink it without answering my questions. Sahadeva did not bother and drank the water from the lake and died. After some time Nakula came in search. And was surprised at seeing the dead Sahadeva. He too decided to drink water and was warned by the crane and he too died on drinking the water. The same thing happened to Arjuna and Bheema. Seeing that all his four brothers are missing, Dharma Puthra came in search. Since he was very thirsty, he too tried to drink the water from the lake. But when the crane warned him, he decided to answer the questions of the crane. Before asking questions, the crane revealed himself as a Yaksha. All the questions asked by the Yaksha were answered by Dharma Puthra to the Yaksha’s satisfaction. Then the Yaksha gave a boon to Dharma Puthra to bring back alive one of his dead brothers. Dharma wanted, Nakula to be made alive. The surprised Yaksha asked him, Oh king, why did you choose Nakula, when you could have chosen Bheema and Arjuna? Dharma Puthra replied, I am alive and so my mother Kunthi has one son. I wanted my other mother Madhri also to have a son alive, The Yaksha was very much pleased and gave life back to all the Pandavas. Given below are the pointed questions asked by the Yaksha and the pithy and very direct replies given by Dharma Puthra. These are a store house of knowledge and termed as Yaksha Prasna (Questions of Yaksha).


यक्षप्रश्नः Yaksha Prasnah Source of E-texts: Sanskrit UnicodeText: www.sanskritdocuments.org Sanskrit Text of Mahabharata: Vedic Reserve at www.mum.edu English Translation by KM Ganguli: www.sacred-texts.com Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 2 अथ मऺप्रश्न् Chapter 296 of Aranyaka Parva in Mahabharata वैशम्पामन उवाच ततो मधुधधियो याजा नकुरॊ वचनभब्रवीत ।् आरुह्य वऺृ ॊभाद्रेम धनयीऺस्व धदशो दश ॥५ Vaisampayana continued, "Then king Yudhishthira addressed Nakula saying, 'Do thou, O son of Madri, climb this tree and look around the ten points of the horizon. ऩानीमभधिकेऩश्म वऺृ ान्वाप्यदुकाश्रमान ।् इभेधह भ्रातय् श्रािास्तव तात धऩऩाधसता् ॥६ Do thou see whether there is water near us or such trees as grow on watery grounds! O child, these thy brothers are all fatigued and thirsty.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 3 नकुरस्तुतथत्ये क्त्वु ा शीघ्रभरुह्य ऩादऩभ ।् अब्रवीद ्भ्रातयॊज्यिेभधबवीक्ष्य सभित् ॥७ Thereupon saying, 'So be it,' Nakula speedily climbed up a tree, and having looked around, said unto his eldest brother; ऩश्माधभ फहुरान्राजन्वऺृ ानदुकसश्रॊ मान ।् सायसानाॊच धनर्ह्ाद ा भत्रोदकभसशॊ मभ ॥् ८ 'O king, I see many a tree that groweth by the water-side, and I hear also the cries of cranes. Therefore, without doubt, water must be somewhere here.' ततोब्रवीत्सत्यधधृत् कुिीऩत्रुो मधुधधिय् । गच्छ सौम्य तत् शीघ्रॊतणू ंऩनीमभानम ॥९ Hearing these words, Kunti's son Yudhishthira, firm in truth, said, 'O amiable one, go thou and fetch water in these quivers!' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 4 नकुरस्तुतथत्ये क्त्वु ा भ्रातज्यु ि े स्य शासनात ।् प्राद्रवद्यत्र ऩानीमॊशीघ्रॊचैवान्वऩद्यत ॥१० Saying, 'So be it,' at the command of his eldest brother Nakula quickly proceeded towards the place where there was water and soon came upon it. स दृष्ट्वा धवभरॊ तोमॊसायसै् ऩधयवाधयतभ ।् ऩातकु ाभस्ततो वाचभिधयऺात्स शश्रुवुे॥११ भा तात साहसॊकाषॉभभ ा ऩवूऩ ा धयग्रह् । प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा तुभाद्रेम तत् धऩफ हयस्व च ॥१२ And beholding a crystal lake inhabited by cranes he desired to drink of it, when he heard these words from the sky, 'O child, do not commit this rash act! This lake hath already been in my possession. Do thou, O son of Madri, first answer my questions and then drink of this water and take away (as much as thou requirest). Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 5 अनादृत्य तुतद्वाक्यॊनकुर् सधुऩऩाधसत् । अधऩफच्छीतरॊ तोमॊऩीत्वा च धनऩऩात ह ॥१३ Nakula, however, who was exceedingly thirsty, disregarding these words, drank of the cool water, and having drunk of it, dropped down dead. धचयामभाणेनकुरेकुिीऩत्रुो मधुधधिय् । अब्रवीद्भ्रातयॊ वीयॊसहदवेभधयन्दभभ ॥् १४ भ्राता धचयामतेतात सहदवे तवाग्रज् । तॊचैवानम सोदम ंऩानीमञ्च त्वभानम ॥१५ And, O represser of foes, seeing Nakula's delay, Yudhishthira the son of Kunti said unto Sahadeva, the heroic brother of Nakula, 'O Sahadeva, it is long since our brother, he who was born immediately before thee, hath gone from hence! Do thou, therefore, go and bring back thy uterine brother, together with water.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 6 सहदवेस्तथत्ये क्त्वु ा ताभ ध्दशाॊप्रत्यऩद्यत । ददश ा च हतॊबभूौ भ्रातयॊनकुरॊ तदा ॥१६ At this, Sahadeva, saying, 'So be it,' set out in that direction; and coming to the spot, beheld his brother lying dead on the ground. भ्रातशृ ोकाधबसतॊ प्तस्तषृ मा च प्रऩीधडत् । अधबदुद्राव ऩानीमॊततो वागभ्यबाषत ॥१७ भा तात साहसॊकाषॉभभ ा ऩवूऩ ा धयग्रह् । प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा मथाकाभॊतत् धऩफ हयस्व च ॥१८ And afflicted at the death of his brother, and suffering severely from thirst, he advanced towards the water, when these words were heard by him, 'O child, do not commit this rash act! This lake hath already been in my possession. First answer my question, and then drink of the water and take away as much as thou mayst require.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 7 अनादृत्य तुतद्वाक्यॊसहदवे् सधुऩऩाधसत् । अधऩफच्छीतरॊ तोमॊऩीत्वा च धनऩऩात ह ॥१९ Sahadeva, however, who was extremely thirsty, disregarding these words, drank of the water, and having drunk of it, dropped down dead. अथाब्रवीत्स धवजमॊकुिीऩत्रुो मधुधधिय् । भ्रातयौ तेऩधयगतौ फीबत्सो शत्रकुशन ा ॥२० तौ चैवानम बद्रॊ तेऩानीमॊच त्वभानम । एवभक्तु ो गडुाकेश् प्रगह्यृ सशयॊधन् ु॥२१ आभक्तु खड्गो भधेावी तत्सय् प्रत्यऩद्यत । Then Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, said unto Vijaya, 'It is long since, O Vibhatsu, that thy two brothers have gone, O represser of foes! Blessed be thou! Do thou bring them back, together with water. Thou art, O child, the refuge of us all when plunged in distress!' Thus addressed, the intelligent Gudakesa, taking his bow and arrows Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 8 and also his naked sword, set out for that lake of waters and soon came upon it. मत् ऩरुुषशार्दर ा ौ ऩानीमहयणेगतौ ॥२२ तौ ददश ाहतौ तत्र भ्रातयौ श्वतेवाहन् । प्रसप्तुाधवव तौ दृष्ट्वा नयधसहॊ ् सदुु ्धखत् ॥२३ धनरुुद्यम्य कौिमेो व्यरोकमत तद्वनभ ।् नाऩश्मत तत्र् धकॊधचत्स बतूॊतधिन्महावने॥२४ सव्यसाची तत् श्राि् ऩानीमॊसोऽभ्यधावत । And reaching that spot, he whose car was drawn by white steeds beheld those tigers among men, his two younger brothers who had come to fetch water, lying dead there. And seeing them as if asleep, that lion among men, exceedingly aggrieved, raised his bow and began to look around that wood. But he found none in that mighty forest. And, being fatigued, he who was capable of drawing the bow by his left hand as well, rushed in the direction of the water. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 9 अधबधावस्तॊ तो वाचभिधयऺात्स शश्रुवुे॥२५ धकभासीदधस ऩानीमॊनत ै च्छक्यॊफरात्त्वमा । कौिमे मधद वैप्रश्नान्ममोक्तान्प्रधतऩत्स्यसे॥२६ तत् ऩास्यधस ऩानीमॊहधयष्यधस च बायत ॥ And as he was rushing (towards the water), he heard these words from the sky, 'Why dost thou approach this water? Thou shalt not be able to drink of it by force. If thou, O Kaunteya, can answer the question I will put to thee, then only shalt thou drink of the water and take away as much as thou requirest, O Bharata!' वाधयतस्त्वब्रवीत्पाथॊ दृश्मभानो धनवायम । मावद्बाणधै वधा नधबन्न ा ् ऩनुनव ैॊवधदष्यधस ॥२७ एवभक्त्वु ा तत् ऩाथ् ा शयय ै स्त्रानभुधित् ै। ववष ा ताॊधदशॊकृत्स्नाॊशब्दवधे ॊच दशम ा न ॥् २८ कणॉनारीकनायाचानत्सु जृ न्भयतषब ा । अनके ैधयषसुघॊ ातय ै िधयऺेववष ा ह ॥२९ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 10 Thus forbidden, the son of Pritha said, 'Do thou forbid me by appearing before me! And when thou shalt be sorely pierced with my arrows, thou wilt not then again speak in this way!' Having said this, Partha covered all sides with arrows inspired by mantras. And he also displayed his skill in shooting at an invisible mark by sound alone. And, O bull of the Bharata race, sorely afflicted with thirst, he discharged barbed darts and javelins and iron arrows, and showered on the sky innumerable shafts incapable of being baffled. मऺ उवाच धकॊ धवघातने तेऩाथ ा प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा तत् धऩफ । अनक्त्वु ा तुतत् प्रश्नान्पीत्वव ै न बधवष्यधस ॥३० Thereupon, the invisible Yaksha said, 'What need of all this trouble, O son of Pritha? Do thou drink only after answering my questions! If thou drink, however, without answering my questions, thou shalt die immediately after.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 11 वैशम्पामन उवाच स त्वभोघाधनषन्मू क्त्वु ा तृष्णमाधबप्रऩीधडत् । अधवऻामैव तान्प्रश्नान्पीत्वव ै धनऩऩात ह ॥३१ Thus addressed, Pritha's son Dhananjaya capable of drawing the bow with his left hand as well, disregarding those words, drank of the water, and immediately after dropped down dead. अथाब्रवीत्बीभसनेॊकुिीऩत्रुो मधुधधिय् । नकुर् सहदवेश्च फीबत्सश्चु ाऩयाधजत् ॥३२ धचयॊगतास्तोमहते ोन ाचागच्छधि बायत । ताश्चॊ व ै ानम बद्रॊ तेऩानीमॊच त्वभानम ॥३३ And (seeing Dhananjaya's delay) Kunti's son Yudhishthira addressed Bhimasena, saying, 'O represser of foes, it is a long while that Nakula and Sahadeva and Bibhatsu (Arjuna) have gone to fetch water, and they have not come yet, O Bharata! Good betide thee! Do thou bring them back, together with water!' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 12 बीभसनेस्तथत्ये क्त्वु ा ताॊधदशॊप्रत्यऩद्यत । मत्र तेऩरुुषव्याघ्रा भ्रातयोऽस्य धनऩधतता् ॥३४ Thereupon saying, 'So be it,' Bhimasena set out for that place where those tigers among men, his brothers, lay dead. तान्दृष्ट्वा दु्धखतो बीभस्तषृ मा च प्रऩीधडत् । अभन्यत भहाफाहु् कभ ा तद्यऺयऺसाभ ।् And beholding them, Bhima afflicted though he was with thirst, was exceedingly distressed. And that mighty armed hero thought all that to have been the act of some Yaksha or Rakshasa. स धचिमाभास तदा मोद्धव्य ॊ ध्रवुभद्य भे॥३५ ऩास्याधभ तावत्पानीमधभधत ऩाथॊ वृकोदय् । ततोऽभ्यधावत्पानीमॊधऩऩास् ुऩरुुषषब ा ् ॥३६ And Pritha's son Vrikodara thought, 'I shall surely Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 13 have to fight today. Let me, therefore, first appease my thirst.' Then that bull of the Bharata race rushed forward with the intention of drinking. मऺ उवाच भा तात साहसॊकाषॉभभ ा ऩवूऩ ा धयग्रह् । प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा तुकौिमे तत् धऩफ हयस्व च ॥३७ Thereupon the Yaksha said, 'O child, do not commit this rash act! This lake hath already been in my possession. Do thou first answer my questions, and then drink and take away as much water as thou requirest!’ वैशम्पामन उवाच एवभक्तु स्ततो बीभो मऺणे ाधभततजे सा । अधवऻामैव तान्प्रश्नान्पीत्वव ै धनऩऩात ह ॥३८ Vaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by that Yaksha of immeasurable energy, Bhima, without answering his questions, drank of the water. And as soon as he drank, he fell down dead on the spot. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 14 तत् कुिीसतुो याजा धवधचन्त्य ऩरुुषषब ा ् । सभत्थु ाम भहाफाहुदह्य ा भानने चतेसा ॥३९ अऩतेजनधनघॊषॊप्रधववशे भहावनभ ।् रुरुधबश्च वयाहैश्च ऩधऺधबश्च धनषधेवतभ ॥् ४० नीरबास्वयवणश्च ै ऩादऩरु ै ऩशोधबतभ ।् भ्रभयरु ै ऩगीतॊच ऩधऺधबश्च भहामशा् ॥४१ स गच्छन्काननेतधिन्हभे जारऩधयष्कृतभ ्। ददश ा तत्सय् श्रीभाधन्वश्वकभक ा ृतॊमथा ॥४२ Then thinking that his brothers had left him long since, Yudhishthira waited for some time. And the king said unto himself again and again, 'Why is it that the two sons of Madri are delaying? And why doth the wielder also of the Gandiva delay? And why doth Bhima too, endued with great strength, delay? I shall go to search for them!' And resolved to do this, the mighty-armed Yudhishthira then rose up, his heart burning in grief. And that bull among men, the royal son of Kunti thought within himself. 'Is this forest under some malign Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 15 influence? Or, is it infested by some wicked beasts? Or, have they all fallen, in consequence of having disregarded some mighty being? Or, not finding water in the spot whither those heroes had first repaired, they have spent all this time in search through the forest? What is that reason for which those bulls among men do not come back?' And speaking in this strain, that foremost of monarchs, the illustrious Yudhishthira, entered into that mighty forest where no human sound was heard and which was inhabited by deer and bears and birds, and which was adorned with trees that were bright and green, and which echoed with the hum of the black-bee and the notes of winged warblers. As he was proceeding along, he beheld that beautiful lake which looked as if it had been made by the celestial artificer himself. उऩतेॊनधरनीजारै् धसन्धवुायश्च ै वतेस् ै। केतक ै ् कयवीयैश्च धऩप्परैश्चैव सवॊ तृ भ ।् श्रभातस्त ा दुऩागम्य सयो दृष्ट्वाथ धवधित् ॥४३ And it was adorned with flowers of a golden hue and with lotuses and Sindhuvars. And it abounded Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 16 with canes and Ketakas and Karaviras and Pippalas, and fatigued with toil, Yudhishthira saw that tank and was struck with wonder." इधत श्रीभहाबायतेआयण्मकऩवधाण षण्णवत्यधधकधद्वशततभोध्याम् २९६ Thus ends chapter 296 in Aranyaka Parva in Mahabharata Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 17 अथ श्रीभहाबायतेआयण्मकऩवधा ण षण्णवत्यधधकधद्वशततभोध्याम् Chapter 297 in Aranyaka Parva in Mahabharata स ददश ाहतान्भ्रातृॉल्लोकऩाराधनव च्यतुान ।् मगुािेसभनप्रुाप्तेशक्रप्रधतभगौयवान ॥् Vaisampayana said, "Yudhishthira saw his brothers, each possessed of the glory of Indra himself, lying dead like the Regents of the world dropped from their spheres at the end of the Yuga. धवप्रकीणध ा नफुाण ा ॊदृष्ट्वा धनहतभजन ा ुभ ।् बीभसनेॊमभौ चोबौ धनधवच ा ष्टेान्गतामषु ् ॥२ स दीघभ ा ष्णु ॊधन्श्वस्य शोकफाष्पऩधयप्लत ु ् । फद्ध्यु ा धवधचिमाभास वीया् केन धनताधऩता् ॥३ And beholding Arjuna lying dead, with his bow and arrows dropped on the ground, Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 18 and also Bhimasena and the twins motionless and deprived of life, the king breathed a hot and long sigh, and was bathed in tears of grief and began to reflect in his mind as to who had slain those heroes. नष ै ाॊशस्त्रप्रहायोऽधस्त ऩदॊनहेाधस्त कस्यधचत ।् बतूॊभहधददॊभन्येभ्रातयो मने भेहता् । एकाग्रॊधचिधमष्याधभ ऩीत्वा वत्स्ये ाधभ वा जरभ ॥् ४ 'There are no strokes of weapons upon these, nor is any one's foot-print here. The being must be mighty I ween, by whom my brothers have been slain. Earnestly shall I ponder over this, or, let me first drink of the water, and then know all. स्यात्तुदुमॊधननेदेभऩुाशॊ धुवधहतॊकृतभ ।् गाधॊ ाययाजयधचतॊसततॊधजह्मफधुद्धना ॥५ मस्य कामभ ा काम ं वा सभभवे बवत्यतु । Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 19 कस्तस्य धवश्वसद्वेीयो दुभत ा येकृतात्मन् ॥६ अथवा ऩरुुषग ै ढू ् ै प्रमोगोऽमॊदुयात्मन् । बवधेदधत भहाफाहुफहु ा धा सभधचिमत ॥् ७ तस्यासीन्न धवषणे देभदुकॊ र्दधषतॊमथा । भखु वणा ा प्रसन्ना भेभ्रातणृ ाधभत्यधचिमत ॥् ८ It may be that the habitually crookedminded Duryodhana hath caused this water to be secretly placed here by the king of the Gandharvas. What man of sense can trust wicked wight of evil passions with whom good and evil are alike? Or, perhaps, this may be an act of that wicked-souled one through secret messengers of his.' And it was thus that that highly intelligent one gave way to diverse reflections. He did not believe that water to have been tainted with poison, for though dead no corpse-like pallor was on them. 'The colour on the faces Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 20 of these my brothers hath not faded!' And it was thus that Yudhishthira thought. एक ै कशश्चौघफरान इ्भान्परुुषसत्तभान ।् कोऽन्य् प्रधतसभासने कारािकमभादृते॥९ And the king continued, 'Each of these foremost of men was like unto a mighty cataract. Who, therefore, save Yama himself who in due time bringeth about the end of all things, could have baffled them thus.' एतनेाध्यवसामने तत्तोमभवगाढवान ।् गाहभानश्च तत्तोमभिधयऺात्स शश्रुवुे॥१० मऺ उवाच अहॊफक् शैवरभत्स्यबऺो भमा नीता् प्रतेवशॊतवानजु ा् । त्वॊऩञ्चभो बधवता याजऩत्रु न चत्प्रे श्नान्पच्छृ तो व्याकयोधष ॥११ भा तात साहसॊकाषॉभभ ा ऩवूऩ ा धयग्रह् । प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा तुकौिमे तत् धऩफ हयस्व च॥१२ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 21 And having concluded this for certain, he began to perform his ablutions in that lake. And while he descended into it, he heard these words from the sky, uttered by the Yaksha,-'I am a crane, living on tiny fish. It is by me that thy younger brothers have been brought under the sway of the lord of departed spirits. If, thou, O prince, answer not the questions put by me, even thou shalt number the fifth corpse. Do not, O child, act rashly! This lake hath already been in my possession. Having answered my questions first, do thou, O Kunti's son, drink and carry away (as much as thou requirest)!' मधुधधष्टय उवाच रुद्राणाॊवा वसनूाॊवा भरुताॊवा प्रधानबाक्। ऩृच्छाधभ को बवान द्वेो नत ै च्छकुधनना कृतभ ॥् १३ धहभवान्पधयमात्रश्च धवध्यॊ ो भरम एव च । चत्वाय् ऩवत ा ा् केन ऩाधतता बधुव तजे सा ॥१४ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 22 Hearing these words, Yudhishthira said, 'Art thou the foremost of the Rudras, or of the Vasus, or of the Marutas? I ask, what god art thou? This could not have been done by a bird! Who is it that hath overthrown the four mighty mountains, viz., the Himavat, the Paripatra, the Vindhya, and the Malaya? Great is the feat done by thee, thou foremost of strong persons! अतीव तेभहत्कभ ा कृतॊफरवताॊवय । मन्न दवेा न गधॊ वा ा नासयुा न च याऺसा् । धवषहयेन्महामद्धुेकृतॊतेतन्महाद्भत ु भ ॥् १५ न तेजानाधभ मत्काम ंनाधबजानाधभ काधितभ ।् कौतहूरॊ भहज्जातॊसाध्वसॊचागतॊभभ ॥ १६ Those whom neither gods, nor Gandharvas nor Asuras, nor Rakshasas could endure in mighty conflict, have been slain by thee! Therefore, exceedingly wonderful is the Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 23 deed done by thee! I do not know what thy business may be, nor do I know thy purpose. Therefore, great is the curiosity and fear also that have taken possession of me? मनेास्म्यधुद्वग्नहृदम् सभत्पु न्नधशयोज्वय् । ऩृच्छाधभ बगवस्तॊ िात्को बवाधनह धतिधत ॥ १७ My mind is greatly agitated, and as my head also is aching, I ask thee, therefore, “O worshipful one, who art thou that stayest here?” मऺ उवाच मऺोऽहभधि बद्रॊ तेनाधि ऩऺी जरेचय् । भमत ैेधनहता् सव े भ्रातयस्तेभहौजस् ॥१८ Hearing these words the Yaksha said, 'I am, good betide thee, a Yaksha, and not an amphibious bird. It is by me that all these Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 24 brothers of thine, endued with mighty prowess, have been slain!' वैशम्पामन उवाच ततस्ताभधशवाॊश्रत्वु ा वाचॊस ऩरुषऺयाभ ।् मऺस्य ब्रवुतो याजन्नऩुक्रम्य तदा धित् ॥१९ धवरूऩाऺॊभहाकामॊमऺॊतरसभच्छ्रु मभ ।् ज्वरनाक ा प्रतीकाशभधष्यृ ॊऩवत ा ोऩभभ ॥् २० सतेभुाधश्रत्य धतििॊददश ा बयतषब ा ् । भघे गबॊ ीयमा वाचा तजम ा िॊभहाफरभ ॥् २१ Vaisampayana continued, 'Hearing these accursed words couched in harsh syllabus1, Yudhishthira, O king, approaching the Yaksha who had spoken then, stood there. And that bull among the Bharatas then 1 Lit. Letters Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 25 beheld that Yaksha of unusual eyes and huge body tall like a palmyra-palm and looking like fire or the Sun, and irresistible and gigantic like a mountain, staying on a tree, and uttering a loud roar deep as that of the clouds. मऺ उवाच इभेतेभ्रातयो याजन्वामभ ा ाणा भमा सकृत ।् फरात्तोमॊधजहीषि ा स्ततो वैसधूदता भमा ॥२२ न ऩमेभदुकॊ याजन्प्राणाधनह ऩयीप्सता । ऩाथ ा भा साहसॊकाषॉभभ ा ऩवू ाऩधयग्रह् । प्रश्नानक्त्वु ा तुकौिमे तत् धऩफ हयस्व च ॥२३ And the Yaksha said, 'These thy brothers, O king, repeatedly forbidden by me, would forcibly take away water. It is for this that they have been slain by me! He that wisheth to live, should not, O king, drink this water! O son of Pritha, act not rashly! This lake hath Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 26 already been in my possession. Do thou, O son of Kunti, first answer my questions, and then take away as much as thou likest!' मधुधधिय उवाच नव ै ाहॊकाभमेमऺ तव ऩवूऩ ा धयग्रहभ ।् काभॊनत ै त्प्रशसॊ धि सिो धह ऩरुुषा् सदा ॥२४ मदात्मना स्वभात्मानॊप्रशसॊ त्पे रुुष् प्रबो । मथाप्रऻॊतुतेप्रश्नान्प्रधतवक्ष्याधभ ऩृच्छ भाभ ॥् २५ Yudhishthira said, 'I do not, O Yaksha, covet, what is already in thy possession! O bull among male beings, virtuous persons never approve that one should applaud his own self (without boasting, I shall, therefore, answer thy questions, according to my intelligence). Do thou ask me!' मऺ उवाच Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 27 धकॊ धस्वदाधदत्यभन्नुमधत केच तस्याधबतश्चया् । कश्चन ै भस्तॊनमधत कधिश्चॊ प्रधतधतिधत ॥ २६ The Yaksha then said, 'What is it that maketh the Sun rise? Who keeps him company? Who causeth him to set? And in whom is he established?' मधुधधिय उवाच ब्रह्माधदत्यभन्नुमधत दवेास्तस्याधबतश्चया् । धभश्च ा ास्तॊनमधत च सत्येच प्रधतधतिधत ॥ २७ Yudhishthira answered, 'Brahma maketh the Sun rise: the gods keep him company: Dharma causeth him to set: and he is established in truth2.' 2 Behind the plain and obvious meanings of the words employed both in the question and the answer, there is a deeper signification of a spiritual kind. I think Nilakantha has rightly understood the passage. By Aditya, which of course commonly means the Sun, is Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 28 मऺ उवाच केनधस्वच्छ्रोधत्रमो बवधत केनधस्वधद्वन्दतेभहत ।् केनधस्वधितीमवान्भवधत याजन क्ेन च फधुद्धभान ॥् २८ The Yaksha asked, 'By what doth one become learned? By what doth he attain indicated the unpurified soul (from adatte sabdadin indriadivis etc.). The first question then, becomes, 'Who is it that exalteth the unpurified soul?' The act of exaltation implies a raising of the soul from its earthly connections. The answer to this is, 'Brahma, i.e., Veda or self-knowledge.' The second question--'What are those that keep company with the soul during its progress of purification?' The answer is, Self-restraint and other qualities, which are all of a god-like or divine nature.' The third question is.-Who lead the soul to its place (state) of rest? The answer is, Dharma, i.e., restitude, morality, and religious observances.' It is often asserted that one must pass through the observances (Karma) before attaining to a state of Rest or Truth or Pure Knowledge. The last question is,-'On what is the soul established!' The answer, according to all that has been previously said, is 'Truth or Pure Knowledge.' For the soul that is emancipated from and raised above all carnal connections, is no longer in need of observances and acts (Karma) but stays unmoved in True Knowledge (Janana). Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 29 what is very great? How can one have a second? And, O king, how can one acquire intelligence?' मधुधधिय उवाच श्रतुने श्रोधत्रमो बवधत तऩसा धवन्दतेभहत ।् धत्यृ ा धद्वतीमवान्भवधत फधुद्धभान व्द्धृ सवेमा ॥ २९ Yudhishthira answered, 'It is by the (study of the) Srutis that a person becometh learned; it is by ascetic austerities that one acquireth what is very great: it is by intelligence that a person acquireth a second and it is by serving the old that one becometh wise3.' 3 Nilakantha explains both Dhriti and Dwitiya in a spiritual sense. There is no need, however, of a spiritual explanation here. By Dhriti is meant steadiness of intelligence; by Dwitiya lit, a second. What Yudhishthira says is that a steady intelligence serves the purposes of a helpful companion. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 30 मऺ उवाच धकॊ ब्राह्मणानाॊदवेत्वॊकश्च धभ् ा सताधभव । कश्चष ै ाॊभानषुो बाव् धकभषेाभसताधभव ॥ ३० The Yaksha asked, 'What constituteth the divinity of the Brahmanas? What even is their practice that is like that of the pious? What also is the human attribute of the Brahmanas? And what practice of theirs is like that of the impious?' मधुधधिय उवाच स्वाध्याम एषाॊदवेत्वॊतऩ एषाॊसताधभव । भयणॊभानषुो बाव् ऩधयवादोऽसताधभव ॥ ३१ Yudhishthira answered, 'The study of the Vedas constitutes their divinity: their asceticism constitutes behaviour that is like that of the pious; their liability to death is Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 31 their human attribute and slander is their impiety.' मऺ उवाच धकॊ ऺधत्रमाणाॊदवेत्वॊकश्च धभ् ा सताधभव । कश्चष ै ाॊभानषुो बाव् धकभषेाभसताधभव ॥ ३२ The Yaksha asked, 'What institutes the divinity of the Kshatriyas? What even is their practice that is like that of the pious? What is their human attribute? And what practice of theirs is like that of the impious?' मधुधधिय उवच इष्वस्त्रभषेाॊदवेत्वॊमऻ एषाॊसताधभव । बमॊव ै भानषुो बाव् ऩधयत्यागोऽसताधभव ॥ ३३ Yudhishthira answered, 'Arrows and weapons are their divinity: celebration of sacrifices is that act which is like that of the pious: liability to fear is their human Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 32 attribute; and refusal of protection is that act of theirs which is like that of the impious.' मऺ उवाच धकभकेॊ मधऻमॊसाभ धकभकेॊ मधऻमॊमज् ु। का चष ै ाॊवणृ तुेमऻॊकाॊमऻो नाधतवतत ा े॥ ३४ The Yaksha asked, 'What is that which constitutes the Sama of the sacrifice? What the Yajus of the sacrifice? What is that which is the refuge of a sacrifice? And what is that which sacrifice cannot do without?' मधुधधिय उवाच प्राणो व ै मधऻमॊसाभ भनो व ै मधऻमॊमज् ु। ऋगके ा वणृ तुेमऻॊताॊमऻो नाधतवतत ा े॥ ३५ Yudhishthira answered, 'Life is the Sama of the sacrifice; the mind is the Yajus of the sacrifice: the Rik is that which is the refuge Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 33 of the sacrifice; and it is Rik alone which sacrifice cannot do without4.' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वदाऩतताॊश्रिेॊधकॊधस्वधन्नऩतताॊवयभ ।् धकॊधस्वत्प्रधतिभानानाॊधकॊधस्वत्प्रसवताॊवयभ ्॥ ३६ 4 Nilakantha explains this correctly, as I imagine, by supposing that by 'sacrifice' is meant the spiritual sacrifice for the acquisition of pure knowledge. In the objective sacrifice which one celebrates, the Sama, the Yajus, and the Rik mantras are all necessary. In the subjective sacrifice the acquisition of true knowledge, life and mind are as necessary as the mantras from the Sama and the Yajur Vedas in an objective one. And as no objective sacrifice can do without the Riks, being principally dependent on them, so the subjective sacrifices for acquiring true knowledge can never do without prayerfulness, which, I imagine, is represented as the Riks. To understand this passage thoroughly would require an intimate acquaintance with the ritual of a sacrifice like the Agnishtoma or any other of that kind. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 34 The Yaksha asked, 'What is of the foremost value to those that cultivate? What is of the foremost value to those that sow? What is of the foremost value to those that wish for prosperity in this world? And what is of the foremost value to those that bring forth?' मधुधधिय उवाच वषभ ा ाऩतताॊश्रिेॊफीजॊधनऩतताॊवयभ ।् गाव् प्रधतिभानानाॊऩत्रु ् प्रसवताॊवय् ॥ ३७ Yudhishthira answered, 'That which is of the foremost value to those that cultivate is rain: that of the foremost value to those that sow is seed: that of the foremost value to those that bring forth is offspring5. 5 Some texts read apatatam for uvapatam. If the former be the correct reading, the meaning would be-'What is the best of things that fall?' Nilakantha explains both avapatam nivapatam in a spiritual sense. By the first he understands-'They that offer oblation to the gods,' and by the second, 'They that offer oblations Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 35 मऺ उवाच इधिमाथान ा नबुवन फ्धुद्धभाल्लॉ ोकऩधूजत् । सभॊ त् सवब ा तूानाभच्छ्वु सन क् ो न जीवधत ॥ ३८ The Yaksha asked, 'What person, enjoying all the objects of the senses, endued with intelligence, regarded by the world and liked by all beings, though breathing, doth not offer anything to these five, viz., gods, guests, servants, Pitris, and himself, though endued with breath, is not yet alive.' मधुधधिय उवाच दवेताधतधथबत्यृ ानाॊधऩतणॄ ाभात्मनश्च म् । न धनवऩ ा धत ऩञ्चानाभच्छ्वु सन्न स जीवधत ॥ ३९ to the Pitris.' The necessity of a spiritual interpretation, however, is not very apparent. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 36 The Yaksha asked, 'What is weightier than the earth itself? What is higher than the heavens?' What is fleeter than the wind? And what is more numerous than grass?' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वद्गरु ु तयॊबभू ्े धकॊधस्वदुच्चतयॊच खात ।् धकॊधस्वच्छीघ्रतयॊवामो् धकॊधस्वद्बहुतयॊतणृ ात ॥् ४० Yudhishthira answered, 'The mother is weightier than the earth; the father is higher than the heaven; the mind is fleeter than the wind; and our thoughts are more numerous than grass.' मधुधधिय उवाच भाता गरुुतया बभू ्े खात ध्ऩतोच्चतयस्तथा । भन् शीघ्रतयॊवाताधच्चिा फहुतयी तणृ ात ॥् ४१ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 37 Yudhishthira answered, 'The mother is weightier than the earth; the father is higher than the heaven; the mind is fleeter than the wind; and our thoughts are more numerous than grass.' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वत्सप्तुॊन धनधभषधत धकॊधस्वज्जातॊन चोऩधत । कस्यधस्वद्धृदमॊनाधस्त धकॊधस्वद्वगे ने वधत ा े॥ ४२ The Yaksha asked, 'What is that which doth not close its eyes while asleep; What is that which doth not move after birth? What is that which is without heart? And what is that which swells with its own impetus?' मधुधधिय उवाच भत्स्य् सप्तुो न धनधभषत्यण्डॊजातॊन चोऩधत । अश्भनो हृदमॊनाधस्त नदी वगे ने वधत ा े॥ ४३ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 38 Yudhishthira answered, 'A fish doth not close its eyes while asleep: an egg doth not move after birth: a stone is without heart: and a river swelleth with its own impetus.' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वत्प्रवसतो धभत्रॊधकॊधस्वधन्मत्रॊगहृ ेसत् । आतयुस्य च धकॊ धभत्रॊधकॊधस्वधन्मत्रॊभधयष्यत् ॥ ४४ The Yaksha asked, 'Who is the friend of the exile? Who is the friend of the householder? Who is the friend of him that ails? And who is the friend of one about to die?' मधुधधिय उवाच साथ् ा प्रवसतो धभत्रॊबामा ाधभत्रॊगहृ ेसत् । आतयुस्य धबषधित्रॊदानॊधभत्रॊभधयष्यत् ॥ ४५ Yudhishthira answered, 'The friend of the exile in a distant land is his companion, the Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 39 friend of the householder is the wife; the friend of him that ails is the physician: and the friend of him about to die is charity. मऺ उवाच कोऽधतधथ् सवब ा तूानाॊधकॊधस्वद्धभ ं सनातनभ ।् अभतृ ॊधकॊधस्वद्राजिे धकॊधस्वत स् वधा भदॊजगत ॥् ४६ The Yaksha asked,-'Who is the guest of all creatures? What is the eternal duty? What, O foremost of kings, is Amrita? And what is this entire Universe?' मधुधधिय उवाच अधतधथ् सवब ा तूानाभधग्न् सोभो गवाभतृ भ ।् सनातनोऽभतृ ो धभॊ वाम् ुसवधा भदॊजगत ॥् ४७ Yudhishthira answered, “Agni is the guest of all creatures: the milk of kine is amrita: Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 40 Homa (therewith) is the eternal duty: and this Universe consists of air alone6.” मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वदके ो धवचयतेजात् को जामतेऩनु ् । धकॊधस्वधद्धभस्य बष ै ज्यॊधकॊधस्वदावऩनॊभहत ॥् ४८ The Yaksha asked,-'What is that which sojourneth alone? What is that which is reborn after its birth? What is the remedy against cold? And what is the largest field?' मधुधधिय उवाच समू ा एको धवचयतेचिभा जामतेऩनु ् । अधग्नधहभ ि स्य बष ै ज्यॊबधूभयाऩवनॊभहत ॥् ४९ 6 Yudhishthira has the authority of the Srutis for saying that the one pervading element of the universe is air. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 41 Yudhishthira answered,-'The sun sojourns alone; the moon takes birth anew: fire is the remedy against cold: and the Earth is the largest field.' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वदके ऩदॊधम्य ंधकॊधस्वदके ऩदॊमश् । धकॊधस्वदके ऩदॊस्वर्ग्म ंधकॊधस्वदके ऩदॊसखु भ ॥् ५० The Yaksha asked,-'What is the highest refuge of virtue? What of fame? What of heaven? And what, of happiness?' मधुधधिय उवाच दाक्ष्यभके ऩदॊधम्य ं दानभके ऩदॊमश् । सत्यभके ऩदॊस्वर्ग्म ं शीरभके ऩदॊसखु भ ॥ ् ५१ Yudhishthira answered,- 'Liberality is the highest refuge of virtue: gift, of fame: truth, Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 42 of heaven: and good behaviour, of happiness.' मऺ उवाच धकॊधस्वदात्मा भनष्यु स्य धकॊधस्वद्दव ै कृत् सखा । उऩजीवनॊधकॊधस्वदस्य धकॊधस्वदस्य ऩयामणभ ्॥ ५२ The Yaksha asked,-'What is the soul of man? Who is that friend bestowed on man by the gods? What is man's chief support? And what also is his chief refuge?' मधुधधिय उवाच ऩत्रु आत्मा भनष्यु स्य बामा ा दव ै कृत् सखा उऩजीवनॊच ऩजन्य ा ो दानभस्य ऩयामणभ ॥् ५३ Yudhishthira answered,-'The son is a man's soul: the wife is the friend bestowed on man Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 43 by the gods; the clouds are his chief support; and gift is his chief refuge.' मऺ उवाच धन्यानाभत्तुभॊधकॊधस्वद ्धनानाॊस्यात ध्कभत्तुभभ ्। राबानाभत्तुभॊधकॊस्यात स् खु ानाॊस्याधत्कभत्तुभभ ॥् ५४ The Yaksha asked,-'What is the best of all laudable things? What is the most valuable of all his possessions? What is the best of all gains? And what is the best of all kinds of happiness?' मधुधधिय उवाच धन्यानाभत्तुभॊदाक्ष्यॊधनानाभत्तुभॊश्रतुभ ्। राबानाॊश्रमे आयोर्ग्मॊसखु ानाॊतधुष्टरुत्तभा ॥ ५५ Yudhishthira answered,-"The best of all laudable things is skill; the best of all possessions is knowledge: the best of all Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 44 gains is health: and contentment is the best of all kinds of happiness.' मऺ उवाच कश्च धभ् ा ऩयो रोकेकश्च धभ् ा सदा पर् । धकॊ धनमम्य न शोचधि क ै श्च सधन्धन ा जीमत ा े॥ ५६ The Yaksha asked,-'What is the highest duty in the world? What is that virtue which always beareth fruit? What is that which if controlled, leadeth not to regret? And who are they with whom an alliance cannot break?' मधुधधिय उवाच आनशृ स्यॊ ॊऩयो धभस्त्र ा मी धभ् ा सदा पर् । भनो मम्य न शोचधि सधन्ध् सधद्भन ा जीमत ा े॥ ५७ Yudhishthira answered,-'The highest of duties is to refrain from injury: the rites Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 45 ordained in the Three (Vedas) always bear fruit: the mind, if controlled, leadeth to no regret: and an alliance with the good never breaketh.' मऺ उवाच धकॊ नुधहत्वा धप्रमो बवधत धकॊ नुधहत्वा न शोचधत । धकॊ नुधहत्वाऽथव ा ान्भवधत धकॊ नुधहत्वा सखु ी बवते ॥् ५८ The Yaksha asked,-'What is that which, if renounced, maketh one agreeable? What is that which, if renounced, leadeth to no regret? What is that which, if renounced, maketh one wealthy? And what is that which if renounced, maketh one happy?' मधुधधिय उवाच भानॊधहत्वा धप्रमो बवधत क्रोधॊधहत्वा न शोचधत । काभॊधहत्वाऽथव ा ान्भवधत रोबॊधहत्वा सखु ी बवते ॥् ५९ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 46 Yudhishthira answered,-'Pride, if renounced, maketh one agreeable; wrath, if renounced leadeth to no regret: desire, if renounced, maketh one wealthy: and avarice, if renounced, maketh one happy.' मऺ उवाच धकभथ ं ब्राह्मणेदानॊधकभथ ं नटनतक ा े। धकभथ ं चव ै बत्यृ षे ुधकभथ ं चव ै याजसु॥६० The Yaksha asked,-'For what doth one give away to Brahmanas? For what to mimes and dancers? For what to servants? And for what to king?' मधुधधिय उवाच धभाथ ा ं ब्राह्मणेदानॊमशोथ ं नटनतक ा े। बत्यृ षे ुबयणाथ ं व ै बमाथ ं चव ै याजसु॥६१ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 47 Yudhishthira answered,-'It is for religious merit that one giveth away to Brahmanas: it is for fame that one giveth away to mimes and dancers: it is for supporting them that one giveth away to servants: and it is for obtaining relief from fear that one giveth to kings.' मऺ उवाच केन धस्वदावतृ ो रोक् केन धस्वन्न प्रकाशते। केन त्यजधत धभत्राधण केन स्वग ं न गच्छधत ॥६२ The Yaksha asked,-'With what is the world enveloped? What is that owing to which a thing cannot discover itself? For what are friends forsaken? And for what doth one fail to go to heaven?' मधुधधिय उवाच अऻाननेावतृ ो रोकस्तभसा न प्रकाशते। रोबात्त्यजधत धभत्राधण सङ्गात स्व् ग ं न गच्छधत ॥ ६३ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 48 Yudhishthira answered,-'The world is enveloped with darkness. Darkness doth not permit a thing to show itself. It is from avarice that friends are forsaken. And it is connection with the world for which one faileth to go to heaven.' मऺ उवाच भतृ ् कथॊस्यात्परुुष् कथॊयाष्ट्रॊभतृ ॊबवते ।् श्राद्धॊभतृ ॊकथॊवा स्यात क् थॊमऻो भतृ ो बवते ॥् ६४ The Yaksha asked,-'For what may one be considered as dead? For what may a kingdom be considered as dead? For what may a Sraddha be considered as dead? And for what, a sacrifice?' मधुधधिय उवाच भतृ ो दधयद्र् ऩरुुषो भतृ ॊयाष्ट्रभयाजकभ ।् भतृ भश्रोधत्रमॊश्राद्धॊभतृ ो मऻस्त्वदधऺण् ॥ ६५ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 49 Yudhishthira answered,-'For want of wealth may a man be regarded as dead. A kingdom for want of a king may be regarded as dead. A Sraddha that is performed with the aid of a priest that hath no learning may be regarded as dead. And a sacrifice in which there are no gifts to Brahmanas is dead.' मऺ उवाच का धदधिभदुकॊ प्रोक्तॊ धकभन्नॊधकॊच व ैधवषभ ।् श्राद्धस्य कारभाख्याधह तत् धऩफ हयस्व च ॥ ६६ The Yaksha asked,-'What constitutes the way? What, hath been spoken of as water? What, as food? And what, as poison? Tell us also what is the proper time of a Sraddha, and then drink and take away as much as thou likest!' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 50 मधुधधिय उवाच सिो धदर्ग्जरभाकाशॊगौयन्नॊप्राथन ा ा धवषभ ।् श्राद्धस्य ब्राह्मण् कार् कथॊवा मऺ भन्यसे॥ ६७ Yudhishthira answered,-'They that are good constitute the way7. Space hath been spoken of as water8. The cow is food9. A request is poison. And a Brahmana is regarded as the proper time of a Sraddha10 . I do not know what thou mayst think of all this, O Yaksha?' 7 The word used in the question is dik, literally, direction. Obviously, of course, it means in this connection way. Yudhishthira answers that the way which one is to tread along is that of the good. 8 The Srutis actually speak of space as water. These are questions to test Yudhishthira's knowledge of the Vedic cosmogony. 9 The Srutis speak of the cow as the only food, in the following sense. The cow gives milk. The milk gives butter. The butter is used in Homa. The Homa is the cause of the clouds. The clouds give rain. The rain makes the seed to sprout forth and produce food. Nilakantha endeavours to explain this in a spiritual sense. There is however, no need of such explanation here. 10 What Yudhishthira means to say is that there is no special time for a Sraddha. It is to be performed. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 51 मऺ उवाच तऩ् धकॊरऺणॊप्रोक्तॊ को दभश्च प्रकीधतत ा ् । ऺभा च का ऩया प्तोक्ता का च हृई् ऩधयकीधतत ा ा ॥ ६८ The Yaksha asked,-'What hath been said to be the sign of asceticism? And what is true restraint? What constitutes forgiveness. And what is shame?' मधुधधिय उवाच तऩ् स्वधभव ा धतत्व ा ॊभनसो दभनॊदभ् । ऺभा द्वन्द्वसधहष्णत्वु ॊहृईयकामधा नवतन ा भ ॥् ६९ Yudhishthira answered,-'Staying in one's own religion is asceticism: the restraint of the mind is of all restraints the true one: forgiveness consists in enduring enmity; and whenever a good and able priest may be secured. Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 52 shame, in withdrawing from all unworthy acts.' मऺ उवाच धकॊ ऻानॊप्रोच्यतेयाजन क् ् शभश्च प्रकीधतत ा ् । दमा च का ऩया प्रोक्ता धकञ्चाजव ा भदुाहृतभ ॥् ७० The Yaksha asked,-'What, O king is said to be knowledge? What, tranquillity? What constitutes mercy? And what hath been called simplicity?' मधुधधिय उवाच ऻानॊतत्त्वाथस ा फॊ ोध् शभधश्चत्तप्रशािता । दमा सवस ा खु धै षत्वभाजव ा ॊसभधचत्तता ॥ ७१ Yudhishthira answered,-'True knowledge is that of Divinity. True tranquillity is that of the heart. Mercy consists in wishing Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 53 happiness to all. And simplicity is equanimity of heart.' मऺ उवाच क् शत्रदुुज ा म ा ् ऩसॊुाॊकश्च व्याधदयनिक् । कीदृशश्च ितृ ् साधयुसाध् ुकीदृश् ितृ ् ॥७२ The Yaksha asked,-'What enemy is invincible? What constitutes an incurable disease for man? What sort of a man is called honest and what dishonest?' मधुधधिय उवाच क्रोध् सदुुजम ा ् शत्ररु ॊबो व्याधदयनिक् । सवब ा तूधहत् साधयुसादुधनद ा म ा ् ितृ ् ॥ ७३ Yudhishthira answered,-'Anger is an invincible enemy. Covetousness constitutes an incurable disease. He is honest that Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 54 desires the weal of all creatures, and he is dishonest who is unmerciful.' मऺ उवाच को भोह् प्रोच्यतेयाजन क् श्च भान् प्रकीधतत ा ् । धकभारस्यॊच धवऻमे ॊकश्च शोक् प्रकीधतत ा ् ॥ ७४ The Yaksha asked,-'What, O king, is ignorance? And what is pride? What also is to be understood by idleness? And what hath been spoken of as grief?' मधुधधिय उवाच भोहो धह धभभ ा ढूत्वॊभानस्त्वात्माधबभाधनता । धभधा नधिमताऽऽरस्यॊशोकस्त्वऻानभच्यु ते॥ ७५ Yudhishthira answered,-'True ignorance consists in not knowing one's duties. Pride is a consciousness of one's being himself an actor or sufferer in life. Idleness consists in Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 55 not discharging one's duties, and ignorance in grief.' मऺ उवाच धकॊ िम ै भ ा धृषधब् प्रोक्तॊ धकॊ च धम ै भ ा दुाहृतभ ।् स्नानॊच धकॊ ऩयॊ प्रोक्तॊ दानॊच धकधभहोच्यते॥ ७६ The Yaksha asked,-'What hath steadiness been said by the Rishis to be? And what, patience? What also is a real ablution? And what is charity?' मधुधधिय उवाच स्वधभ ेधियता िम ैं धम ैधा भधिमधनग्रह् । स्नानॊभनोभरत्यागो दानॊव ै बतूयऺणभ ॥् ७७ Yudhishthira answered,-'Steadiness consists in one's staying in one's own religion, and true patience consists in the subjugation of the senses. A true bath consists in washing Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 56 the mind clean of all impurities, and charity consists in protecting all creatures.' मऺ उवाच क् ऩधण्डत् ऩभुान ऻ् मेो नाधस्तक् कश्च उच्यते। को भखू ् ा कश्च काभ् स्यात क् ो भत्सय इधत ितृ ् ॥ ७८ The Yaksha asked,-'What man should be regarded as learned, and who should be called an atheist? Who also is to be called ignorant? What is called desire and what are the sources of desire? And what is envy?' मधुधधिय उवाच धभऻ ा ् ऩधण्डतो ऻमेो नाधस्तको भखू ा उच्यते। काभ् ससॊ ायहते श्चु हृत्ताऩो भत्सय् ितृ ् ॥ ७९ Yudhishthira answered,-'He is to be called learned who knoweth his duties. An atheist is he who is ignorant and so also he is Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 57 ignorant who is an atheist. Desire is due to objects of possession, and envy is nothing else than grief of heart.' मऺ उवाच कोऽहङ्काय इधत प्रोक्त् कश्च दबॊ ् प्रकीधतत ा ् । धकॊ तद्दव ैॊऩयॊ प्रोक्तॊ धकॊ तत्पश ै न्यु भच्यु ते॥ ८० The Yaksha asked,-'What is pride, and what is hypocrisy? What is the grace of the gods, and what is wickedness?' मधुधधिय उवाच भहाऻानभहङ्कायो दम्भो धभॊ ध्वजोच्छ्रम् । दव ैॊदानपरॊ प्रोक्तॊ ऩश ै न्यु ॊऩयर्दषणभ ॥् ८१ Yudhishthira answered,-'Stolid ignorance is pride. The setting up of a religious standard is hypocrisy. The grace of the gods is the Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 58 fruit of our gifts, and wickedness consists in speaking ill of others.' मऺ उवाच धभश्च ा ाथश्च ा काभश्च ऩयस्पयधवयोधधन् । एषाॊधनत्यधवरुद्धानाॊकथभके त्र सङ्गभ् ॥ ८२ The Yaksha asked,-'Virtue, profit, and desire are opposed to one another. How could things thus antagonistic to one another exist together?' मधुधधिय उवाच मदा धभश्च ा बामा ा च ऩयस्पयवशानगुौ । तदा धभाथ ा क ा ाभानाॊत्रमाणाभधऩ सङ्गभ् ॥ ८३ Yudhishthira answered,-'When a wife and virtue agree with each other, then all the three thou hast mentioned may exist together.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 59 मऺ उवाच अऺमो नयक् केन प्राप्यतेबयतषब ा । एतन्मेऩच्छृ त् प्रश्नॊतच्छीघ्रॊवक्तुभहधा स ॥ ८४ The Yaksha asked,-'O bull of the Bharata race, who is he that is condemned to everlasting hell? It behoveth thee to soon answer the question that I ask!' मधुधधिय उवाच ब्राह्मणॊस्वमभाहूम माचभानभधकञ्चनभ ।् ऩश्चान्नस्तीधत मो ब्रमूात स् ोऽऺमॊनयकॊ व्रजते ॥् ८५ वदेषे ुधभश ा ास्त्रषे ुधभथ्या मो व ैधद्वजाधतषु। दवेषे ुधऩतधृ भष े ुसोऽऺमॊनयकॊ व्रजते ॥् ८६ धवद्यभानेधनेरोबाद्दानबोगधववधजत ा ् । ऩश्चान्नास्तीधत मो ब्रमूात स् ोऽऺमॊनयकॊ व्रजते ॥् ८७ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 60 Yudhishthira answered,-'He that summoneth a poor Brahmana promising to make him a gift and then tells him that he hath nothing to give, goeth to everlasting hell. He also must go to everlasting hell, who imputes falsehood to the Vedas, the scriptures, the Brahmanas, the gods, and the ceremonies in honour of the Pitris, He also goeth to everlasting hell who though in possession of wealth, never giveth away nor enjoyeth himself from avarice, saying, he hath none.' मऺ उवाच याजन क् ुरेन वत्तृ ने स्वाध्यामने श्रतुने वा । ब्राह्मण्मॊकेन बवधत प्रब्रह्यू तेत स् धुनधश्चतभ ॥् ८८ The Yaksha asked,-'By what, O king, birth, behaviour, study, or learning doth a person become a Brahmana? Tell us with certitude!' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 61 मधुधधिय उवाच श्रणु ुमऺ कुरॊ तात न स्वाध्यामो न च श्रतुभ ।् कायणॊधह धद्वजत्वेच वत्तृ भवे न सशॊ म् ॥ ८९ वत्तृ ॊमत्नने सयॊ क्ष्यॊब्राह्मणने धवशषेत् । अऺीणवत्तृ ो न ऺीणो वत्तृ तस्तुहतो हत् ॥९० ऩठका् ऩाठकाश्चव ै मेचान्येशास्त्रधचिका् । सव े व्यसधननो भखू ा ा म् धक्रमावान स् ऩधण्डत् ॥ ९१ चतवुद ेोऽधऩ दुवत्तृा ् स शद्रूादधतधयच्यते। मोऽधग्नहोत्रऩयो दाि् स ब्राह्मण इधत ितृ ् ॥ ९२ Yudhishthira answered,-'Listen, O Yaksha! It is neither birth, nor study, nor learning, that is the cause of Brahmanahood, without doubt, it is behaviour that constitutes it. One's behaviour should always be wellguarded, especially by a Brahmana. He who maintaineth his conduct unimpaired, is never impaired himself. Professors and Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 62 pupils, in fact, all who study the scriptures, if addicted to wicked habits, are to be regarded as illiterate wretches. He only is learned who performeth his religious duties. He even that hath studied the four Vedas is to be regarded as a wicked wretch scarcely distinguishable from a Sudra (if his conduct be not correct). He only who performeth the Agnihotra and hath his senses under control, is called a Brahmana!' मऺ उवाच धप्रमवचनवादी धकॊ रबतेधवभधृशतकामक ा य् धकॊ रबते। फहुधभत्रकय् धकॊ रबतेधभ े यत् धकॊ रबतेकथम ॥ ९३ The Yaksha asked,-'What doth one gain that speaketh agreeable words? What doth he gain that always acteth with judgment? What doth he gain that hath many friends? And what he, that is devoted to virtue?' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 63 मधुधधिय उवाच धप्रमवचनवादी धप्रमो बवधत धवभधृशतकामक ा योऽधधकॊ जमधत । फहुधभत्रकय् सखु ॊवसतेमश्च धभय ा त् स गधतॊरबते॥ ९४ Yudhishthira answered,-'He that speaketh agreeable words becometh agreeable to all. He that acteth with judgment obtaineth whatever he seeketh. He that hath many friends liveth happily. And he that is devoted to virtue obtaineth a happy state (in the next world).' मऺ उवाच को भोदतेधकभाश्चम ं क् ऩन्था् का च वाधतक ा ा । वद भेचतयु ् प्रश्नान भ् तृ ा जीविुफान्धवा् ॥ ९५ The Yaksha asked,-'Who is truly happy? What is most wonderful? What is the path? And what is the news? Answer these four Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 64 questions of mine and let thy dead brothers revive.' मधुधधिय उवाच ऩञ्चभऽेहधन षिेवा शाकॊ ऩचधत स्वेगहृ े। अनणृ ी चाप्रवासी च स वाधयचय भोदते॥ ९६ अहन्यहधन बतूाधन गच्छिीह मभारमभ ।् शषेा् िावयधभच्छधि धकभाश्चमभ ा त् ऩयभ ॥् ९७ तकॊऽप्रधति् श्रतुमो धवधबन्ना नक ैो ऋधषमस्य ा भतॊप्रभाणभ ।् धभस्य ा तत्त्वॊधनधहतॊगहुामाॊभहाजनो मने गत् स ऩन्था्॥ ९८ अधिन भ् हाभोहभमेकटाहेसमूाधा ग्नना याधत्रधदवन्धे नने । भासतद ा ुवॉऩधयघट्टनने बतूाधन कार् ऩचतीधत वाता ा॥ ९९ Yudhishthira answered, 'O amphibious creature, a man who cooketh in his own house, on the fifth or the sixth part of the day, with scanty vegetables, but who is not Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 65 in debt and who stirreth not from home, is truly happy. Day after day countless creatures are going to the abode of Yama, yet those that remain behind believe themselves to be immortal. What can be more wonderful than this? Argument leads to no certain conclusion, the Srutis are different from one another; there is not even one Rishi whose opinion can be accepted by all; the truth about religion and duty is hid in caves: therefore, that alone is the path along which the great have trod. This world full of ignorance is like a pan. The sun is fire, the days and nights are fuel. The months and the seasons constitute the wooden ladle. Time is the cook that is cooking all creatures in that pan (with such aids); this is the news.' Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 66 मऺ उवाच व्याख्याता भेत्वमा प्रश्ना माथातथ्यॊऩयिऩ । ऩरुुषॊधत्वदानं व्याख्याधह मश्च सवध ा नी नय् ॥ १०० The Yaksha asked,-'Thou hast, O represser of foes, truly answered ail my questions! Tell us now who is truly a man, and what man truly possesseth every kind of wealth.' मधुधधिय उवाच धदवॊस्पशृ धत बधूभॊच शब्द् ऩण् ुमने कभण ा ा । मावत्स शब्दो बवधत तावत्परुुष उच्यते॥ १०१ तल्यु ेधप्रमाधप्रमेमस्य सखु दु्खेतथव ै च । अतीतानागतेचोबेस व ै सवध ा नी नय् ॥ १०२ Yudhishthira answered,-'The report of one's good action reacheth heaven and spreadeth over the earth. As long as that report lasteth, Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 67 so long is a person to whom the agreeable and the disagreeable, weal and woe, the past and the future, are the same, is said to possess every kind of wealth.' मऺ उवाच व्याख्यात् ऩरुुषो याजन्यश्च सवध ा नी नय् । तिात्त्वभकेॊ भ्रातणॄ ाॊमधभच्छधस स जीवतु॥ १०३ The Yaksha said, -'Thou hast, O king truly answered who is a man, and what man possesseth every kind of wealth. Therefore, let one only amongst thy brothers, whom thou mayst wish, get up with life!' मधुधधिय उवाच श्माभो म एष यक्ताऺो फृहच्छार इवोधत्थत् । व्यढूोयस्को भहाफाहुनक ा ुरो मऺ जीवतु॥ १०४ Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 68 Yudhishthira answered,-'Let this one that is of darkish hue, whose eyes are red, who is tall like a large Sala tree, whose chest is broad and arms long, let this Nakula, O Yaksha, get up with life! मऺ उवाच धप्रमस्तेबीभसनेोऽमभजन ा ुो व् ऩयामणभ ।् स किान्नकुरो याजन्साऩत्नॊजीवधभच्छधस ॥ १०५ मस्य नागसहस्रणे दशसङ्ख्यने व ै फरभ ।् तल्यु ॊतॊबीभभत्सु ज्यृ नकुरॊजीवधभच्छधस ॥ १०५ तथन ैॊभनजु ा् प्राहुबॉभसनेॊधप्रमॊतव । अथ केनानबुावने साऩत्नॊजीवधभच्छधस ॥ १०६ मस्य फाहुफरॊसव े ऩाण्डवा् सभऩुासते। अजन ा ुॊतभऩाहाम नकुरॊजीवधभच्छधस ॥ १०७ The Yaksha rejoined,-'This Bhimasena is dear unto thee, and this Arjuna also is one Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 69 upon whom all of you depend! Why, then, O king dost thou, wish a step-brother to get up with his life! How canst thou, forsaking Bhima whose strength is equal to that of ten thousand elephants, wish Nakula to live? People said that this Bhima was dear to thee. From what motive then dost thou wish a step-brother to revive? Forsaking Arjuna the might of whose arm is worshipped by all the sons of Pandu, why dost thou wish Nakula to revive?' मधुधधिय उवाच धभ ा एव हतो हधि धभॊ यऺधत यधऺत् । तिाद्धभ ं न त्यजाधभ भा नो धभॊ हतोऽवधीत ॥् १०८ आनशृ स्यॊ ॊऩयो धभ् ा ऩयभाथाच्च ा भेभतभ ।् आनशृ स्यॊ ॊधचकीषाधा भ नकुरो मऺ जीवतु॥ १०९ धभश ा ीर् सदा याजा इधत भाॊभानवा धवदु् । स्वधभान्न ा चधरष्याधभ नकुरो मऺ जीवतु॥ ११० Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 70 कुिी चव ै भाद्री च द्वेबाम े तुधऩतभुभ ा । उबेसऩत्रुेस्याताॊव ै इधत भेधीमतेभधत् ॥ १११ मथा कुिी तथा भाद्री धवशषेो नाधस्त भेतमो् । भातभ्यृ ाॊसभधभच्छाधभ नकुरो मऺ जीवतु॥ ११२ Yudhishthira said,-'If virtue is sacrificed, he that sacrificeth it, is himself lost. So virtue also cherisheth the cherisher. Therefore taking care that virtue by being sacrificed may not sacrifice us, I never forsake virtue. Abstention from injury is the highest virtue, and is, I ween, even higher than the highest object of attainment. I endeavour to practise that virtue. Therefore, let Nakula, O Yaksha, revive! Let men know that the king is always virtuous! I will never depart from my duty. Let Nakula, therefore, revive! My father had two wives, Kunti and Madri. Let both of them have children. This is what I wish. As Kunti is to Yaksha Prasnah (मऺप्रश्न्) 71 me, so also is Madri. There is no difference between them in my eye. I desire to act equally towards my mothers. Therefore, let Nakula live' मऺ उवाच मस्य तऽेथाच्च ा काभाच्च आनशृ स्यॊ ॊऩयॊभतभ ।् तिात्तेभ्रातय् सव े जीविुबयतषब ा ॥ ११३ The Yaksha said,-'Since abstention from injury is regarded by thee as higher than both profit and pleasure, therefore, let all thy brothers live, O bull of Bharata race!" इधत श्रीभहाबायतेआयण्मकेऩवधा ण आयणमे ऩवधा ण मऺप्रश्न्

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