ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 13-02-2016
To download this collection of poems, click here for the DOS version (zipped) or here for the Unix version (tarred and gzipped).
IV. MANIPRAVALA WORKS
An Explanation of the Vedic Ritual of Yajur Upakarma,
known in Tamil as "Avani Avittam"
by Vijayaraghavan Srinivasan
for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page
August 14, 1997
Srirangam, Tirupati, Tiruvahindrapuram, more...
| THE ALVARS |
Andal, Nammalvar, Tiruppaan, Tirumangai, more...
| RAMANUJA |
One of the most influential philosophers of India, and the most important teacher of Sri Vaishnavism.
One of the foremost poets and philosophers of India; a versatile genius who permanently set Ramanuja's philosophy on firm footing. [image] Peruse his stotras.
One of the greatest and best loved Sri Vaishnava acharyas; responsible for the renewal of Sri Vaishnavism in the 15th century.
|POETRY, PHILOSOPHY,SCRIPTURE |
Sri Ranganathar Temple construction : Part 2
Dear BhakthAs of Sri RanganAthA : The thoughts about Sri RangEsa PurOhithA , Sri ParAsara Bhattar are still swirling my head . I will dwell some more on this extaordinary devotee of Sri RangarAjA . According to one anecdote , during the last moments of his life on earth at Srirangam , Bhattar was asked by one of his grief-stricken shishyAs , whether he would indeed like to go to Sri Vaikuntam . The great devotee of Sri RanganAthA replied with feeling : " Yes , I will first travel to Sri Vaikuntam and have the darsanam of Sri VaikuntanAthan there to satisfy my curiosity whether he is as enthralling and captivating as our RanganAthA . If Sri VaikuntanAthan does not match up , I will return right back to this bhUlOkam and continue to serve our Rangan .I do not really pay much attention to the SaasthrAs declaring that there is no return to this earth for one , who reaches Sri Vaikuntam " . That speaks volumes about the devotion of Bhattar for Sri RanganAthA . In a similar spirit , ThiruppANa AzhwAr declared that " yenn amudhanaik kanda kaNNgaL maRRonrinaik kANAvE " in one of his ten paasurams . AzhwAr declared here that his eyes will not care to see any one or anything after soaking in the nectar of the beauty of Sri RanganAthAn . It is pertinent to point out that Swami Desikan chose the title of Sri Bhagavadh DhyAna sOpAnam for a sthOthram he composed in honor of Sri RanganAthA . He did not name it , " Sri RanganAtha DhyAna sOpAnam " because he wanted to emphasize the nature of RanganAthA as the supreme BhagavAn with the six auspicious attributes . Coming back to Parasara Bhattar's enjoyment of Azhagiya MaNavALan , the whole pUrva sathaka of Sri RangarAja sthavam of Bhattar instructs us about the blessings and grandeur of worshipping Sri RanganAthA at Srirangam. The kramam (sequence ) is as follows :taking a sacred bath in Cauvery , entering the grand temple ,taking another purificatory bath in chandra pushkariNi , worshipping the AzhwArs , offering salutation to Sri Ranga VimAnam , and then standing next to the special pillar inside the garbha graham known as KalyANa sthambham ( maNat thUNN ) and being lost in the bliss arising from the darsanam of the Sesha sAyee with His divine consorts . Worshipping the AzhwArs and particularly NammAzhwAr through the recitation of his paasurams on Sri RanganAthA ( Thiruvaimozhi 7.2) was very important to ParAsara Bhattar. In these paasurams , NammAzhwAr describes his pathetic state of existence resulting from his seperation ( vislEsham ) from his Lord . He cries out in viraha tApam as ParAnkusa Naayaki . According to traditional accounts , Bhattar was overcome by the depth of feelings of NammAzhwAr for "her" nAyakan in these paasurams and used to say : " We are not fit to appreciate the AzhwAr's intensity of love nor can we fathom his yearning and desire for the union with the Lord .We are simply reciting these paasurams without understanding even an iota of the AzhwAr's true feelings " . Sri RanganAtha eulogized by eleven AzhwArs ( pathinmar paaDiya PerumAL ) resides in " the aarAtha aruLamudham pothintha Koil " according to Swami Desikan's description in AdhikAra Sangraham . He listens to the thousand verses dedicated to Him by NammAzhwAr ( vaan thihazhum solai mathiLarangar vaNN puhazh mEl aanRa Tamizh maRaigaL aayiram ) and allocates that naivEdhyam to the ArchA mUrthys of other divya dEsams .The adopted child of Sri RanganAthan , Parasara Bhattar refers to this allocation of Thiruvaimozhi paasurms by Sri Rangapureesan . Parasara Bhattar's nirvAhams(intrepretations ) of Thiruvaimozhi are famous . He was fond of quoting Thiruvaimozhi Paasuram relating to the Lord reclining on AdhisEshA : " pAmpaNayAn seer kalantha soll ninainthu pOkkArEl , soozh vinayin aazh thuyarai yenn ninainthu pOkkuvar ippOthu ? " ( Meaning ) : How are they (people )going to banish the sorrows of their samsAric afflictions , if not by reflecting on the words glorifying the anantha kalyANa guNAs of the Lord reclining on his serpent bed at Srirangam now ? " . That is why the AzhwAr/AchAryA's divya sUkthis are important for us to recite instead of saying something on our own .The power of their anubhavam lasts even today and will last forever. The Lord relates to it , when we recite them . One such divya sUkthi is the Sri RanganAtha SthOthram of Parasara Bhattar consisting of 6 main slOkAs and two more stray verses . As a result of his displeasure over the BhAgavadhApacharam committed by the ruling king ( Veera Sundara Bhramma rAyan )of Srirangam , Bhattar reluctantly left Srirangam and settled at GOshtipuram ( ThirukkOttiyUr ) for a short time . There , he missed the sevai of Sri RanganAthan and the nithyOthsavams at Srirangam . He pined for the darsanam of Sri RanganAthan and mentally invoked the Lord reclining on the five-headed Adhi sEshan in the middle of Cauveri and KoLLidam in the first slOkam of his Sri RanganAtha sthOthram in an evocative manner : saptha prAkAra madhyE sarasija- mukuLodhbhAsamAnE vimAnE KaavEri madhya dEsE mridhutara- paNirAt bhOgya paryanka bhAgE I nidhrA mudhrAbhirAmam katina- katisira: pArsva vinyastha hastham PadmAdhAthree karAbhyAm parichitha- charaNam RANGARAAJAM bhajEham II ( Meaning ) : In the center of Ubhya KaauvEri and in the middle of the seven ramparts ( prAkArams ) and under the Sriranga vimAnam resembling a giant lotus bud rests our beautiful Lord RanganAthA on His beautiful bed of Adhi SeshA in the state of Yoga NidhrA with His right hand close to His crown and the left hand on the left side pointing to His sacred feet . I pay my obesiance to that SaraNyan , Sri RangarAjan . Now , Bhattar is overcome with sorrow over the thought of being separated from his Lord and pines for the darsana soubhAghyam of Sri RanganAthan in his second verse : kasthUree kalithOrdhva punDra- tilakam karNAnthalOlEkshaNam mugdha smEra manOharAdharadalam mukthA kireetOjjvalam I pasyan maanasa pasyathOhara- rucha:paryAyapankEruham SrirangAdhipathE : kadhA nu vadhanam sEvEya bhUyOpyaham II ( Meaning ) : When am I going to have the blessings of enjoying the beautiful face of the mind-stealer (chitthApahAri), Sri RanganAthA adorned by the fragrant urdhva punDra tilakam made up of kasthUri parimaLam , possessing the steady eyes that extend up to His ears , having the lips enriched by the most natural captivating smile, the shining pearl crown and the face resembling in softness and beauty of a just-blossoming lotus ? In the third slOkam , Bhattar laments about his durbhAgyam and asks the Lord , when he ( Bhattar ) is going to stand next to Him and sing about His names : kadhAham kAuvEreetaDa parisarE RanganagarE sayAnam BhOgeendrE satha maNi syAmaLa ruchim I upAseena: krOsan Madhumathana! NaarAyaNa ! HarE ! MurArE ! govindEthyanisam apanEshyAmi divasAn II ( Meaning ) : When am I going to have the bhAgyam of standing next to that Lord with the hue of Indra neela gem resting on Adhi SeshA and have his darsanam and sing raptourously His names , " Madhumathana ! NaarAyaNa ! HarE ! MurArE ! Govindha ! " and spend the days of my life this way ? Such longings continue and in the next slOkam , Bhattar longs for the day of return to Srirangam and taking his purificatory bath in the sacred waters of KaavEri river : kadhAham kAvEri vimala salilE veetha kaalEshu bhavEyam tattheerE sramamushi vasEyam ganavanE I kadhA vaa tam puNyE mahathi pulinE mangala guNam bhajEyam RangEsam kamala nayanam sEsha sayanam II ( Meaning ) : When am I going to have the blessings of sevaa bhAgyam of the lotus-eyed Lord , Sri RangEsan , resting on His soft and comfortable serpent bed ? When am I going to be blessed to take my snAnam in the cool and sacred waters of KaavEri river and become sinless? When am I going to gain the boon of living in the verdant groves on the bank of this sacred river and worship my Bewitching Rangan ? In the subsequent slOkam , Bhattar is deeply worried about his good fortune that would permit him to return to the kshEthram of his beloved Lord and he laments : pUgee kaNDa dhvayasa sarasasnighdha neerOpakantAm aavirmOdhasthimitha sakunAnudhitha bhramaghOshAm I maargE maargE pathika nivahai: unchyamAnApavargAm pasyEyam thaam punarapi pureem Srimatheem RangadhAmna : II ( Meaning ) : Will I ever have the soubhAgayam to return to the sacred Srirangam , where the waters of KaavEri flow up to the neck of the arecanut ( kamuhu) trees with its sweet and plesant waters ? will I ever have the darsana soubhAgyam of the happy birds ( SaarikA birds ) , which repeat the Veda manthrams in their state of Joy as residents of Srirangam and where the throngs of the bhAgyasAlis gather together the assembly of wealth ( sampath Samriddhi ) known as Moksham as a result of their visits ? Will I ever have the good fotune to visit that KshEthram of Sri RanganAthA ? Like Kulasekara AzhwAr begged Sri VenkatEsA of Thirumalai to be born as anything on the sacred hills, Bhattar asks in the next slOkam to be born even as a lowly dog in Srirangam . Here is his prayer: na jAthu peethAmrutha mUrchithAnAm nAkoukasAm nandhavADikAsu I' RangEsvara! tvath puram aasrithAnAm rathyAsunAm anyatamO bhavEyam II ( Meaning ) : Oh , RanganAthA ! I will never want to be one of the devAs , who drink nectar in the gardens of IndrA and feel inebriated with joy from that kind of experience . May I be blessed instead to be born as a dog in the streets of Your Sriranga KshEthram ( to be near You and have Your darsanam as you go around the streets of Your rajadhAni during Your Uthsavams ) . With the above slOkam , the Sri RanganAtha SthOthram is over . There are however two more stray verses( Mudhagams) , which are always recited . These two might have been composed at another time by Bhattar . The first of the two has connections to the wish to be born as a lowly dog in Srirangam . One morning , Bhattar was rushing to the temple to execute his duties as SrirangEsa PurOhithar . A devotee came out of the temple and told the passing Bhattar that a dog strayed into the Sannidhi and therefore a group of people were conducting Saanthi Homam and puNyAhavAchanam to purify the inner precincts . This devotte was somewaht skeptical about the motives of those performing the homam and mentioned that the group was doing the homam for their own personal benefit .On hearing that , the amused Bhattar composed this slOkam and placed it at the feet of His Lord : asannikrushtasya nikrushtajanthO- mithyApavAdhEna karOshi sAnthim I tathO nikrushtE mayi sannikrushtE kaam nishkruthim RangapathE karOshi ? II ( Meaning ) : Oh , RanganAthA ! You are having the saanthi homam performed under the pretext of a dog that entered Your sannidhi . That event however did not happen .What are You going to do now , when the lowliest of the lowliest , myself has arrived at Your side ? What kind of santhi homam are you going to get done to sanctify Your sannidhi ? This is the context of the origin of Bhattar's seventh slOkam that we recite . In the concluding slOkam , Bhattar lists a number of Divya desams like Srirangam dear to AchAryA RaamAnujA's heart : Srirangam karisailam anjanagirim thArkshyAdhri Simhaachalou Sri kUrmam PurushOtthamam cha BhadareenArAyanam naimisam I Srimadh DwAravathee PrayAga- MadhurA AyOdhyA GayA: Pushkaram SaaLagrAma girim nishEvya ramathE RaamAnujOyam muni: II ( Meaning ) : Our great AchArya RaamAnuja had stayed with affection ( uhandhu yezhuntharuLinAr) at Srirangam , Hasthigiri ( Kaanchi ) , Thiru Venkatam , AhObilam , SimhAchalam , SreekUrmam , PurushOtthamam ( pUri Jagannatham ), BhadrikAsramam , NaimisAraNyam , Srimadh DwArakai ,PrayAg , Vada Madhurai , AyOddhi , Gaya , Pushkaram and SaalagrAmama giri . The greatness of the mukthi kshEhtrams is saluted here with Srirangam at the front end . Such Srirangam and its KshEthranAthan is going to take His residence at Pomona , New York in few months . May I appeal to you to help generously to complete the temple fit for His residence and be there to receive Him with Poorna Kumbham on the day of His arrival soon ? Please contact me or Dr.Venakat Kanumalla ( email@example.com ) for information on how you can accelerate this Kaimkaryam towards its finish line . The birthdays of the divya dampathis of Srirangam ( Revathi for Sri RanganAthan and Uttaram for Sri RanganAyaki ) are fast approaching . Sri Rama Navami is coming close . The new Tamil , Telegu and kannadA new Year is about to be born. During the occasion of these auspicious events , May I appeal to you all to help in every way you can with this kaimkaryam ? In the next posting on Sri RanganAthA , I will cover the salutations of Saint ThyagarAja ( Sriranga Pancha Rathnam ) and Sri Mutthuswami Dikshithar's tribute to Sri RanganivAsan in raagams BrindhAvana SaarangA and others . Sri RangEsa CharaNou SaraNam PrapadhyE ParAnkusa Daasan , Oppiliappan Sannidhi VardAchAri SadagOpan
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Stotras of Vedanta DesikaSri Desika's Sanskrit Poems of PraiseSri Desika's stotras, arranged in their probable order of composition.
[About the contributors]
1. Hayagriva Stotram - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
In Praise of Hayagriva, the horse-faced form of Lord Vishnu. 2. Garuda Panchasat - Summary, Devanagari Text
Fifty Verses on Garuda. 3. Devanayaka Panchasat - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Fifty Verses on Devanayaka, the Lord of Tiruvahindrapuram. 4. Achyuta Satakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
A Hundred Verses on Achyuta, the Lord of Tiruvahindrapuram. 5. Raghuveera Gadyam - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Prose Poem on Rama, the Hero of the Raghus. 6. Gopala Vimsati - Summary, Translation, Devanagari Text
Twenty Verses on the Cowherd Boy. 7. Dehaleesa Stuti - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of the Lord of the Verandah. 8. Varadaraja Pancasat - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Fifty Verses on Varadaraja. 9. Ashtabhuja Ashtakam- Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Eight Verses on the Eight-Armed One. 10. Vegasetu Stotram - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
In Praise of Vega's Bridge. 11. Kamasika Ashtakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Eight Verses on the Seated God of Love. 12. Saranagati Deepika - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Light on Taking Refuge. 13. Paramartha Stuti - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of the Supreme Goal. 14. Sudarsana Ashtakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Eight Verses on Sudarsana. 15. Shodasaayudha Stotra - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of the Sixteen Divine Weapons. 16. Daya Satakam - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Hundred Verses on Compassion. 17. Vairagya Pancakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Five Verses on Dispassion. 18. Bhagavad Dhyana Sopanam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Staircase of Contemplation on the Lord. 19. Sri Stuti - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of Sri, the Divine Mother. 20. Bhu Stuti - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of Mother Earth. 21. Goda Stuti - Summary, Devanagari Text
In Praise of Goda (Andal). 22. Dasavatara Stotram - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
In Praise of the Ten Holy Incarnations. 23. Yatiraja Saptati - Summary, Devanagari Text
Seventy Verses on the King of Ascetics (Ramanuja). 24. Nyasa Tilakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Ornament of Surrender. 25. Nyasa Vimsati - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Twenty Verses of Self-Surrender. 26. Nyasa Dasakam - Summary, Details, Devanagari Text
Ten Verses of Self-Surrender. 27. Garuda Dandakam - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Dandaka on Garuda. 28. Abhiti Stava - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Prayer for Freedom from Fear.
A. Desika Mangalam - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Benediction of Sri Desika. B. Divya Desa Mangalasasanam - Summary, Devanagari Text
A Benediction of the Lord's Holy Places of Residence.
About the ContributorsThe stotra summaries are by the late Sri D. Ramaswamy Ayyangar, a great rasika of Desika's sri suktis. They were originally published in 1973 by the Bombay Desika Sabha.
The detailed expositions and translations are by various members of the Bhakti Discussion Group. Particular mention should be made of Sri V. Sadagopan and Sri N. Krishnamachari.
The Devanagari texts are thanks to the great efforts of Sri Sunder Kidambi.
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Sri Vaishnava : Alvars Add/View Comments
THE ALVAR SAINTSAlvar means one who is "immersed" in the experience of God, the omnipresent mysterious One. Tradition reckons 12 Alvars. They come from all walks of life and all strata of society and include in their ranks one woman. Between the fifth and ninth century, in the Tamil-speaking region of South India, these saints revitalized the Indian religious milieu, sparking a renewal of devotional worship throughout the subcontinent. Traveling from place to place, from temple to temple, from holy site to holy site, they composed exceedingly beautiful poetry to their Divine Beloved, Vishnu, as an expression of their love for Him. Anyone can see why their poetry was so attractive; at once both impassioned and philosophical, their words cut across all barriers of caste and class, attracting all to their faith. In doing so, they sculpted a new religious heritage of intensely emotional bhakti, or love of the Divine, whose impact is still felt today in the Indian religious life.
Not yet represented: Madhurakavi Alvar. I will also replace
the poor quality photographs with better ones in the near future.The Alvars composed approximately 4000 Tamil verses. In the 9th-10th centuries, the philosopher-saint Nathamuni went to extraordinary efforts to recover these verses from near oblivion. Nathamuni arranged them as the Divya Prabandham, or Divine Collection, set many of them to music, and rejuvenated the tradition of formally reciting them in temples.
Mani Varadarajan Last modified: Tue Apr 13 13:54:38 PDT
WORKS OF VEDANTA DESIKA
To download this collection of poems, click here for the DOS version (zipped) or here for the Unix version (tarred and gzipped).
IV. MANIPRAVALA WORKS
The Significance of Upakarma
known in Tamil as "Avani Avittam"
by Vijayaraghavan Srinivasan
for the Sri Vaishnava Home Page
August 14, 1997
Upakarma (Avani Avittam): Nature and Purpose
Upakarma (/upaakarma/) means beginning or "Arambham", i.e. to begin the study of the Veda (Veda Adhyayanam). For example, Yajur Upakarma means to begin the study of the Yajur Veda. Those belonging to the Yajur Veda observe the Upakarma in the month of Sravana (August-September), on the day of the full moon (paurnami). Why begin study of the Vedas on this particular day? This auspicious day also happens to be the day when Lord Narayana took the avatara as Lord Hayagriva. Lord Hayagriva as we all know restored the Vedas to Brahma and also is the God of Knowledge.
The next question is: why do this every year? In the not too distant a past, Veda Adhyayanam was performed only during the period Avani to Tai (from mid-August to mid-January). Therefore, one is supposed to perform an "utsarjanam" in the month of Tai, i.e., a giving up of the learning of Vedas from Tai to Avani. Just like a Upakarma function there was a Utsarjana function in Tai. The period between January to August was then devoted to learning other branches of our shastras. Thus the cycle of Upakarma and Utsarjana with regard to Vedic studies was established. However, this method took 12 or more years to learn just one veda. Slowly this became impractical and Vedic studies continued throughout the year.
Therefore, the first thing to do before the Upakarma function is to do a praayaschitta (atonement) for having learned Vedas during the prohibited period. Specifically, one atones for not having performed the Utsarjanam in the month of Tai. That's why we begin the function by doing the "kAmo'karshIt..." japam. The purpose is declared as "adhyAya-utsarjana-akarana-prAyaScittArtham.." (to atone for not doing the utsarjana of Vedic study) and the sankalpam continues as "...ashTottara-sahasra-sankhyayA kAmo'karshIt manyur akArshIt mahA-mantra-japam karishye" (I will now do recite the great "kAmo'kArshIt" mantra 1008 times). The meaning in Tamil is "kAmaththAl seyya pattadhu, kOpaththAl seyya pattadhu" -- done out of desire, done out of anger. The correct way of chanting this mantra is "kAmo'karshIt manyur akArshIt". Don't add namo nama: etc. The right time to perform is immediately after your morning anushthanam like sandhya, samidaadaanam (if you are a brahmachari), brahma-yajnam etc. This is performed during the abhigamana kaalam. Brahmacharis are supposed to have a hair-cut (prefarably by a man!) after this.
The Kanda Rishis and their SignificanceWe saw that the "kAmo'karshIt manyur akArshIt" japam is done with a sense of contrition. Who else but Vasudeva can bear the burden of our acts of omissions and commissions with regard to shastras? SAstramayena sthira pradIpena -- Daya Devi (compassion of the Lord personified) lights the lamp of shastras so that the jiva can find its way to its home in the Absolute.
After the kamo'karsheeth japam, we proceed to perform the Upakarma function. It is done after mAdhyAhnikam and bhagavad-ArAdhanam (ijyA). The main purpose of the Upakarma function is to offer prayers and express our gratitude to those rishis who gave us the Vedas -- the rishis through whom the Vedic mantras were revealed. These rishis are known as "kaanda rishis". There are different rishis for the different Vedas. We are expected to worship those rishis who belong to our shakha or branch of the Veda, one of Yajur, Rk, Samam etc. The Yajur Veda consists of 4 kaandams. These are known as
- prAjApatya kaaNDam
- saumya kaaNDam
- Agneya kaaNDam and
- vaishvadeva kaaNDam.
These kaandams are named after those rishis who first taught the Vedas, viz., Prajapati, Soma, Agni and Vishvadeva. Subsequently we also offer our prayers to the Upanishads saamhiti, yaajniki, and vaaruni, and finally to Svayambhu and Sadasaspati, through whom the Yajur Veda came down to us.
The sankalpam is mainly taken for performing the Upakarma Homam. Then we say tad angam snAnam karishye, tad angam yajnopavIta-dhAraNam karishye, tad angam kANDarshi tarpaNam karishye -- which implies that all other activities like snaanam, yajnopaveeta dhaaranam, tarpanam etc., are only performed as an 'angam' or subsidiary to the Upakarma Homam (which is the angi or primary).
In the Upakarma Homam as well as in the tarpanam, the offerings are made to the kaanda rishis. In fact this tarpanam is so important that it is included as part of our nitya karma-anushthaanam, our daily worship. There are other minor points that are worth noting:
- Brahmacharis should wear maunji (belt made of sacred grass), ajinam (deerskin) and dandam (stick made of palaasa wood) after they wear the poonool (sacred thread). There are separate mantras for each.
- It is said that: purAtanAn parityajya which implies that you should wear a new set of clothes (veshti and uttarIyam) before the tarpanam and homam.
- It is also said that: kAndarshi tarpaNa-kAle punaH snAtvA Ardra vastra eva tat kuryAt, i.e, before performing the kaanda rishi tarpanam you should once again take a dip in the water and do it with wet clothes.
- The rishi tarpanam is done with the poonool in the nivita position (like a garland) and the water along with rice and sesame seeds should leave the root of the small finger.
- In some traditions you fast on the Upakarma day or at least fast till the end.
- In some traditions a general pitr tarpanam is also done.
|Your Location||Upakarma Date||Gayatri Japa Date|
|USA||Friday, August 3||Saturday, August 4|
|India||Consult local vidvans|
|Singapore||Saturday, August 4||Saturday, August 4|
(1) Do morning nityakarmas including sandhyAvandanam as one would do on any other day. (2) kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt japam (first time upAkarmins [talai AvaNi aviTTam] skip this and goto (3)) Facing east: (a) Acamanam twice (b) prANAyAma (c) sankalpam, including sAttvika tyAgam: (i) guru-paramparA anusandhAnam. For example, for me, this is: SrImAn venkaTanAthAryaH kavitArkika kesarI | vedAntAcArya varyo me sannidhattAm sadA hRdi || gurubhyas tad gurubhyaS ca namo vAkam adhImahe | vRNImahe ca tatrAdyau dampatI jagatAm patI || sva-sesha-bhUtena mayA svIyaiH sarva paricchadaiH | vidhAtum prItam AtmAnam devaH prakramate svayam || (ii) vighna nivAraNam / viSvaksena dhyAnam SuklAmbaradharam vishNum SaSivarnam caturbhujam | prasanna-vadanam dhyAyet sarva-vighnopaSAntaye || yasya dvirada-vaktrAdyAH pAriSadyAH paraH Satam | vighnam nighnanti satatam viSvasenam tam ASraye || (iii) mahA-sankalpa hariH om tat SrI govinda govinda govinda! asya SrI-bhagavato mahApurushasya vishNor AjnayA pravartamAnasya adya brahmaNe dvitIya-parArdhe SrI-Sveta-varAha-kalpe vaivasvata-manvantare kaliyuge prathamapAde jambudvIpe, bhAratavarshe, bharatakhaNDe, SakAbde, meror dakshiNe pArSve asmin vartamAnAnAm vyAvahArikANAm prabhavAdi shashTi samvatsarANAm madhye vRsha nAma samvatsare dakshiNAyane, grIshma Rtau, SrAvaNa mAse, Sukla pakshe, paurNamAsyAm Subha-tithau, (if in the USA): bhRgu-vAsara-sravaNa-nakshatra yuktAyAm, (if in Madras or Singapore): Sthira-vAsara-sravaNa-nakshatra yuktAyAm, SrI-vishnu-yoga SrI-vishnu-karaNa Subha-yoga Subha-karaNa evam guNa-viSeshaNa viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA [ SrIman-nArAyaNa-prItyartham OR bhagavat-kainkarya-rUpam OR bhagavat-prItyartham, depending on sampradAya ] taishyAm paurNamAsyAm adhyAya-utsarjana-akaraNa-prAyaScitta-artham, ashTottara-sahasra (1008) [ashTottara-Sata (108)] sankhyayA "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt" mahAmantra-japam karishye. (iv) sAttvika tyAgam (see notes) bhagavAn eva svaniyAmya sva-Sesha-bhUtena mayA sva-ArAdhana-eka-prayojanAya idam "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt mahAmantra-japam" svasmai svaprItaye svayam eva kArayati. (e) Do japam of "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt" 1008 or 108 times as one has resolved. (f) Acamanam once, followed by concluding sAttvika tyAgam (3) Brahmacharis are supposed to have a haircut now. (4) Perform mAdhyAhnikam, including mAdhyAhnika snAnam if one is accustomed, followed by bhagavad-ArAdhanam. After this, strictly speaking, one should wait until after midday (aparAhna) to perform the upAkarma, but these days, due to exigencies of work, etc., people do it earlier. (5) Preparing for the upAkarma Seated facing east, wearing a pavitram if available, after Acamanam twice, prANAyama, and sankalpa, including sAttvika tyAgam: (repeat sankalpa portion from above, including dhyAna slokas) SrAvaNyAm paurNamAsyAm adhyAya-upAkarma karishye, tad angam kAndarshi-tarpaNam karishye, tad angam yajnopavIta-dhAraNam karishye, tad angam snAnam karishye. [ Brahmacharis add: tad angatayA maunji-ajina-daNDa-dhAraNAni karishye ] (a) First, do the 'nimitta snAnam'. The very orthodox, performing this ritual at a river bank or pushkariNi, would have done the snAnam immediately upon reaching the water. If this is not possible, do mAnasika snAnam as a bare minimum by meditating on the lotus-eyed Lord. (b) Wear the new yajnopavItam (poonool-s) with appropriate mantras (1) Sit squatting (kukkuTTAsanam) facing east. Acamanam twice (2) prANAyAmam, wearing pavitram if available (3) sankalpam, with sAttvika tyAgam: adya pUrvoccarita evam guNa-viseshaNa-viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA SrIman-nArAyaNa-prItyartham (or variant) Srauta-smArta-vihita-nitya-karma-anushThAna- yogyatA-siddhyartham yajnopavIta-dhAraNam karishye (4) Put one yajnopavItam on at a time. To do this, hold the yajnopavItam with both hands, with your right palm facing up over your head, and your left palm facing the ground. The top of the brahma-mudi (knot) should be on your right palm and should be facing right. Then say this mantra, while holding the sacred thread this way: yajnopavIta-dhAraNa-mantrasya brahmA Rshi: trishTup chanda: trayIvidyA devatA yajnopavIta dhAraNe viniyoga: yajnopavItam paramam pavitram, prajApater yat sahajam purastAt | Ayushyam agryam pratimunca Subhram yajnopavItam balam astu teja: || Now wear the yajnopavItam. Acamanam once. If you are married, repeat this procedure for the second yajnopavItam, from the praNAyAmam and sankalpa to the mantra, and wear the thread. Acamanam. The sankalpa is: pUrvoccarita evam guNa-viseshaNa-viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA SrIman-nArAyaNa-prItyartham (or variant) gArhasthyArham dvitIya yajnopavIta-dhAraNam karishyE Wear the second yajnopavItam as before. Then, after saying upavItam chinnantu jIrNam kaSmala-dUshitam | visRjAmi punar brahman varco dIrghAyur astu me || remove the old yajnopavItam(s) and discard them under a tree, in a river, or some other natural place. Don't throw them in the garbage! Acamanam again followed by sAttvika tyAgam. (c) Brahmacharis should recite mantras for the darbha belt (maunji), krishNAjina (a piece of deer skin), and palAsa daNDa and if possible wear them (see notes for the mantras) (d) Acamanam (5) Nava kANDa Rshi tarpaNam (a) Acamanam twice (b) Facing north, walk knee-deep into a river or pool of fresh water if possible. Otherwise stand where you are; traditionally, your clothes should be wet. Do as you can. (c) For each of the following, offer a mixture of (uncooked) rice, black sesame seeds (eL), and water, as you say 'tarpayAmi'. Each line should be said three times. Preferably, someone should help by pouring the water as you release the rice and sesame, as this makes it easier. Wear the yajnopavItam as a necklace (nivItam). For the first seven, cup both your hands together, having the yajnopavItam's brahma-mudi (knots) resting in your palms and with the threads going between your thumb and forefinger of each hand. The water should be released along with the sesame and rice between the two hands, at the base of the little finger. This is known as Rshi tIrtham. (i) prajApatim kANDarshim tarpayAmi (ii) sOmam kANDarshim tarpayAmi (iii) agnim kANDarshim tarpayAmi (iv) viSvAn devAn kANDarshIn tarpayAmi (v) sAmhitIr devatA upanishadas tarpayAmi (vi) yajnikIr devatA upanishadas tarpayAmi (vii) vAruNIr devatA upanishadas tarpayAmi Now, still nivItam, the water mixture should be released towards you, off of the base of the hands near the palms (i.e., away from the fingertips). Typically this is done by pointing the fingers straight up, keeping the sides of the hands together. This is known as brahma-tIrtham. (viii) brahmANaGM svayambhuvam tarpayAmi Now the water should be poured as deva-tIrtham. This means that the water mixture should be poured off the tips of the fingers. (ix) sadasaspatim tarpayAmi (x) See Note (f) below (e) Return to upavItam, i.e., your poonool in its normal position. Finish with Acamanam and sAttvika tyAgam, and change into dry clothes. (6) Traditionally there is now a upAkarma homa, where the rishis and devatAs mentioned above are once again saluted using the sacred fire. Then there is vedArambha, where the first four anuvAkas of the yajur veda samhita are taught to the sishyas. This is the most important part of the upAkarma. This is followed by jayAdi homam. These may not be available if one is away from one's elders and acharyas. At minimum, it is recommended that you recite one anuvAka from your veda on this day. The Purusha Sukta suffices, for example. If you haven't learnt any of your veda, you should do gAyatrI japam in its place. [ It is often erroneously thought that upAkarma or AvaNi aviTTam is primarily the changing the yajnopavItam (poonool). This cannot be further from the truth. Changing the poonool happens very often, whenever a significant vedic karma is performed. UpAkarma, however, is a rededication of oneself to the study of one's Veda, along with a salutations to the rishis who perceived and revealed the Vedic mantras to the world. This is the significance of the nava-kANDarshi tarpaNam and the anuvAka recitation. ]
(a) On the UpAkarma day, strictly speaking, the rule is to eat only after bhagavad-ArAdhana and the homam. If done properly this lasts well into the afternoon. Because of the length of the procedure, young brahmacharis and those others who are absolutely unable to bear their hunger are permitted to eat before the homam itself. The typical meal consists of idli and appam, but usually excludes rice. Complete fasting is observed after this through the night, in preparation for the next day's gAyatrI japam. In some traditions one meal is eaten during the day and phalAhAram is observed at night. (b) The mantra for the kAmo'kArshIt japam is "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt". Most authorities end with this, and do not follow it by anything else. However, in some traditions, the mantra is "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt namo namaH". (c) Some people also change their yajnopavItam before the kAmo'kArshIt japam, in addition to the changing done for upAkarma itself. It should be remembered that the changing before upAkarma is the more important one, and if one only wants to change once, the upAkarma changing is preferred. The reason for this is as follows. the kAmo'kArshIt japam is done as an atonement, a prAyaScittam for not having done the traditional utsarjana sankalpa earlier in the year. The sankalpa for the japam says this explicitly ('adhyAya-utsarjana-akaraNa'). Just as upAkarma is the formal recommencement of Vedic studies, the utsarjana is a sankalpa done to formally halt study of the Vedas and commence study of grammar, prosody, pronounciation, astronomy, etymology, etc., as well as other shastras, all of which are helpful in understanding the Vedas. The year was therefore divided into two, one half for studying the Vedas, the other half for studying the VedAngas or Vedic accessories. The utsarjana has unfortunately fallen into disuse for quite a while, so what remains is the meagre prAyaScittam for not having done it. Therefore, the important yajnopavItam changing is for the upAkarma. (d) sankalpa details The following is said for any major sankalpa (mahA-sankalpa). The underlined parts change depending on the day and are specified below for upAkarma this year (2001). After acharya vandanam and vishvaksena dhyAnam, hariH om tat (not "om tat sat") SrI govinda govinda govinda! asya SrI-bhagavato mahApurushasya vishNor AjnayA pravartamAnasya adya brahmaNe dvitIyaparArdhe SrI-Sveta-varAha-kalpe vaivasvata-manvantare kaliyuge prathamapAde jambudvIpe, bhAratavarshe, bharatakhaNDe, SakAbde, meror dakshiNe pArSve asmin vartamAnAnAm vyAvahArikANAm prabhavAdi shashTi samvatsarANAm madhye vRsha nAma samvatsare dakshiNAyane, grIshma Rtau, SrAvaNa mAse, Sukla pakshe, paurNamAsyAm Subha-tithau, (if in the USA): Sukra-vAsara-sravaNa-nakshatra yuktAyAm, (if in Madras or Singapore): Sani-vAsara-sravaNa-nakshatra yuktAyAm, SrI-vishnu-yoga SrI-vishnu-karaNa Subha-yoga Subha-karaNa evam guNa-viSeshaNa viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA [ SrIman-nArAyaNa-prItyartham OR bhagavat-kainkarya-rUpam OR bhagavat-prItyartham, depending on sampradAya ] followed by the sankalpa for the particular karma. Having said a mahA-sankalpa once for a particular ritual, it need not be said again and again in its entireity. It is enough to say "pUrvoccarita evam guNa-viSeshaNa viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA..." (e) sAttvika tyAgam details sAttvika tyAgam is a moment of contemplation whereby one dedicates the act and all its fruits entirely to Bhagavan, and where one recognizes that Bhagavan himself is performing the act through you entirely for His own purposes. Typically, as an expression of this attitude, a brief sentence is stated before and after performing the karma. In an abbreviated form, here is one version: Before doing the karma: bhagavAn eva svaniyAmya sva-Sesha-bhUtena mayA sva-ArAdhana-eka-prayojanAya idam [name of the act] svasmai svaprItaye svayam eva kArayati. After doing the karma, say the same thing, except replace the last word "kArayati" with "kAritavAn". (f) After the kANDa-rishi tarpaNam, some people add: Rg-vedam tarpayAmi yajur-vedam tarpayAmi sAma-vedam tarpayAmi atharvaNa-vedam tarpayAmi itihAsam tarpayAmi purANam tarpayAmi kalpam tarpayAmi Some also now recommend pitR tarpaNam (prAcIna-vItam) for those whose fathers are no longer alive. (g) procedure for wearing the yajnopavitam (poonool) (h) mantras for wearing the maunji, ajina, and palAsa daNDa: (1) maunji , , , ,, iyam duruktAt paribAdhamAnA Sarma varUtham punatIna AgAt | - - - - - - , , , , prANApAnAbhyAm balamAbharantI priyA dEvAnAGM subhagA mEkhaleyam || - - - - - - - - - - , , , , Rtasya gOptrI tapasa: parasvIghnatI raksha: sahamAnA arAtI: | - - - - - - , , , , , sAna: samantamanu parIhi bhadhrayA bhartAraste mekhale mA rishAma || - - - - - (2) ajina , , , , , mitrasya cakshur dharuNam balIyas tejo yaSasvi sthaviraGM samiddham | - - - - - - - - , , anAhanasyam vasanam jarishNu parIdham vAjyajinam dadhe'ham || -- - - - - - - (3) daNDa , , , , suSravassuSravasam mA kuru yathA tvaGM suSrava: susravA asyevamahaGM - - - - - - - - , , , , ,, ,, suSravassuSravA bhUyAsam yathA tvaGM suSravassuSravo devAnAm nidhigOpO- - - - - - - - - ,, , , 'syevamaham brAhmaNAnAm brahmaNo nidhigOpO bhUyAsam || - - - -
Rg Upakarma Procedure, 2000 IMPORTANT NOTE: I am a yajur vedI. I have never witnessed or performed a Rg Veda upAkarma, so I do not know any details about its performance. All I write is taken from Sri Uttamur T. Viraraghavacharya's published summary of the Rg vedIya procedure. In all probability, there are gaps and/or erros in my presentation. Please consult knowledgable elders if you are unsure. (1) Do morning nityakarmas including sandhyAvandanam as one would do on any other day. (2) kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt japam (first time upAkarmins skip this) (I am including this because I think this part is the same as for yajur veda. Please fix or skip if I am mistaken.) (a) Acamanam twice (b) prANAyAma (c) mahA-sankalpam, including sAttvika tyAgam: adhyAya-utsarjana-akaraNa-prAyaScitta-artham, ashTottara-sahasra (1008) [ashTottara-Sata (108)] sankhyayA "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt" mahAmantra-japam karishye. (e) Do japam of "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt" 1008 or 108 times as one has resolved. (f) Acamanam once, followed by sAttvika tyAgam (3) Perform mAdhyAhnikam, including mAdhyAhnika snAnam if one is accustomed. (4) Preparing for the upAkarma Seated facing east, wearing a pavitram if available, after Acamanam twice, prANAyama, and mahA-sankalpa, including sAttvika tyAgam: SrAvaNyAm SravaNa-nakshatre adhItAnAm chandasAm ayAta-yAmatvAya vIryavattA-siddhyartham adhyAya-upAkarma karishye, tad angam tarpaNAdi karishye, tad angam snAnam karishye. (a) Bathe once again (at least mAnasika snAnam: apavitra: pavitro vA sarvAvasthAm gato'pi vA | ya: smaret puNDarIkAksham sa bAhyAbhyantara-suci: || Think of Lord as the lotus-eyes Pundarikaksha and sprinkle a little water (prokshaNa) on the place where you will sit/squat. ) (5) maNDala-deva-tarpaNam, etc. (a) Acamanam twice (b) sankalpa specifically for the tarpaNam: SrAvaNyAm SravaNa-nakshatre adhItAnAm vIryatA-siddhyartham svAdhyAya-Atmaka-deva-rshi-pitR-prItyartham sAvitryAdi- nava-pradhAna-devatAnAm agnyAdi-vimSati-maNDala-devatAnAm brahma-yajna-devatAnAm ca tarpaNam karishye (c) tarpaNam done upavItI (yajnopavItam in standard position) (I can't give you any more details about how it is to be done. Probably this should be deva-tIrtham) sAvitrIm tarpayAmi brahmANam '' SraddhAm '' medhAm '' prajnAm '' dhAraNAm '' sadasaspatim '' anumatim '' chandobhya Rshibhya: '' agnim '' aptRNasUryam '' agnim '' Sukantam '' agnim '' Apa: tRpyantu agnim tarpayAmi maruta: tRpyantu agnim tarpayAmi varmANam tarpayAmi agnim tarpayAmi mitrAvaruNau tRpyetAm agnim tarpayAmi indrAsomau tRpyetAm indram tarpayAmi agnimarutau tRpyetAm pavamAnasomau tRpyetAm somam tarpayAmi agnim tarpayAmi samjnAnam tarpayAmi viSvadevA: tRpyantu devatA: tRpyantu agnis tRpyatu vishNus tRpyatu prajApatis tRpyatu brahmA tRpyatu vedA: tRpyantu devA: tRpyantu Rshaya: tRpyantu sarvANi chandAmsi tRpyantu omkAra: tRpyatu vashaTkAra: tRpyatu vyAhRtaya: tRpyantu sAvitrI tRpyatu yajnA: tRpyantu dyAvA-pRthivI tRpyetAm antariksham tRpyatu aho-rAtrANi tRpyantu sankhyA: tRpyantu sAnkhyA: tRpyantu siddhA: tRpyantu sAdhyA: tRpyantu samudrA: tRpyantu nadya: tRpyantu gAva: tRpyantu giraya: tRpyantu kshetroushadhi-vanaspati-gandharva-apsarasa: tRpyantu nAgA: tRpyantu vayAmsi tRpyantu viprA: tRpyantu yakshA: tRpyantu bhUtAni tRpyantu (d) tarpaNam done nivItI (yajnopavItam like a necklace/garland. tarpaNam should probably be done Rshi-tIrtham) Satarcina: tRpyantu mAdhyamA: tRpyantu gRsnamada: tRpyatu viSvAmitra: tRpyatu vAmadeva: tRpyatu atri: tRpyatu bharadvAja: tRpyatu vasishTha: tRpyatu pragAthA: tRpyantu pAvamAnya: tRpyantu kshudra-sUktA: tRpyantu mahA-sUktA: tRpyantu (e) tarpaNam done prAcIna-vItI (yajnopavItam on opposite side. tarpaNam should probably be pitR-tIrtham) jaimini-vaiSampAyana-paila-sUtrabhAshya-bhArata-mahAbhArata- dharmAcAryA: tRpyantu jAnanti-bAhavi-gArgya-gautama-Sakalya-bAbhravya-mANDUkya- mANDukeyA: tRpantu gArgI tRpyatu vAcaknavI tRpyatu baDabA: tRpyatu prAtitheyI tRpyatu sulabhA tRpyatu maitreyi tRpyatu kahoLam tarpayAmi kaushItakam tarpayAmi mahAkaushItakam tarpayAmi bharadvAjam tarpayAmi paingam tarpayAmi mahApaingam tarpayAmi suyajnam tarpayAmi sAnkhyAyanam tarpayAmi aitareyam tarpayAmi mahaitareyam tarpayAmi bAshkalam tarpayAmi gArgyam tarpayAmi gautamam tarpayAmi sujAtavaktram tarpayAmi audavAhim tarpayAmi mahaudavAhim tarpayAmi saujAmim tarpayAmi Saunakam tarpayAmi ASvalAyanam tarpayAmi ye ca anye AcAryA: te sarve tRpyantu (f) If one's father is no longer alive, now pitR tarpaNam (e) Return to upavItam, i.e., your poonool in its normal position. Finish with Acamanam and sAttvika tyAgam, and change into dry clothes. (6) yajnopavIta dhAraNam (listed in Notes for Yajur Veda but probably the same for Rg Veda) (a) Wear the new yajnopavItam (poonool-s) with appropriate mantras (b) Brahmacharis should recite mantras for the darbha belt (maunji), krishNAjina (a piece of deer skin), and palAsa daNDa and if possible wear them (7) Traditionally there is now a upAkarma homa, where the rishis and devatAs mentioned above are once again saluted using the sacred fire. The there is vedArambha, where the beginning of the Rg Veda is taught to the sishyas. These may not be available if one is away from one's elders and acharyas. At minimum, it is recommended that you recite one anuvAka from your veda on this day. [ It is often erroneously thought that upAkarma or AvaNi aviTTam is primarily the changing the yajnopavItam (poonool). This cannot be further from the truth. Changing the poonool happens very often, whenever a significant vedic karma is performed. UpAkarma, however, is a rededication of oneself to the study of one's Veda, along with a salutations to the rishis who perceived and revealed the Vedic mantras to the world. This is the significance of the tarpaNam and the anuvAka recitation. ] (7) Next is bhagavad-ArAdhanam, as you would do on any normal day. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Notes (a) On the UpAkarma day, complete fasting is observed at night and a small meal is eaten during the day. This meal typically consists of idli or something similar, but excludes rice. Please also remember that you are not supposed to eat anything until after bhagavad-ArAdhanam. (b) The mantram for the kAmo'kArshIt japam is "kAmo'kArshIt manyur akArshIt". It is not followed by "namo namaH". (c) sankalpa details The following is said for any major sankalpa (mahA-sankalpa). What is specified below is for Rg upAkarma this year (1999). After acharya vandanam and vishvaksena dhyAnam, hari om tat SrI govinda govinda govinda! asya SrI-bhagavato mahApurushasya vishNor AjnayA pravartamAnasya adya brahmaNe dvitIyaparArdhe SrI-Sveta-varAha-kalpe vaivasvata-manvantare kaliyuge prathamapAde jambudvIpe, bhAratavarshe, bharatakhaNDe, SakAbde, meror dakshiNe pArSve asmin vartamAnAnAm vyAvahArikANAm prabhavAdi shashTi samvatsarANAm madhye vikrama nAma samvatsare dakshiNAyane, varsha Rtau, SrAvaNa mAse, Sukla pakshe, paurNamAsyAm Subha-tithau, soma-vAsara-SravaNa-nakshatra yuktAyAm, SrI-vishnu-yoga SrI-vishnu-karaNa Subha-yoga Subha-karaNa evam guNa-viSeshaNa viSishTAyAm, asyAm Subha-tithau, SrI-bhagavad-AjnayA [ SrIman-nArAyaNa-prItyartham OR bhagavat-kainkarya-rUpam OR bhagavat-prItyartham, depending on sampradAya ] followed by the sankalpa for the particular karma. (e) sAttvika tyAgam details sAttvika tyAgam means dedicating the act one is performing or has performed entirely to Bhagavan, and that Bhagavan is performing it through you entirely for Himself. It is said before and after performing the karma. In an abbreviated form, here is one version: Before doing the karma: bhagavAn eva svaniyAmya sva-Sesha-bhUtena mayA svasmai svaprItaye svayam eva [name of the act] kArayati. After doing the karma, say the same thing, except replace the last word "kArayati" with "kAritavAn". (f) procedure for wearing the yajnopavitam (poonool) (1) Sit squatting (kukkuTTAsanam) facing east. Acamanam twice (2) prANAyAmam, wearing pavitram if available (3) sankalpam, with sAttvika tyAgam: Srauta-smArta-vihita-nitya-karma-anushThAna- yogyatA-siddhyartham yajnopavIta-dhAraNam karishye (4) Put one yajnopavItam on at a time. To do this, hold the yajnopavItam with both hands, with your right palm facing up over your head, and your left palm facing the ground. The top of the brahma-mudi (knot) should be on your right palm and should be facing right. Then say this mantra, while holding the sacred thread this way: yajnopavIta-dhAraNa-mantrasya brahmA Rshi: trishTup chanda: trayIvidyA devatA yajnopavIta dhAraNe viniyoga: yajnopavItam paramam pavitram, prajApater yat sahajam purastAt | Ayushyam ugryam pratimunca Subhram yajnopavItam balam astu teja: || Now wear the yajnopavItam. Acamanam once. If you are married, repeat this procedure for the second yajnopavItam, from the praNAyAmam and sankalpa to the mantra, and wear the thread. Acamanam. Then, after saying upavItam chinnantu jIrNam kaSmala-dUshitam | visRjAmi punar brahman varco dIrghAyur astu me || remove the old yajnopavItams and discard them under a tree or some other natural place. Don't throw them in the garbage! Acamanam again followed by sAttvika tyAgam. (5) mantras for maunji, ajina, and daNDa dhAraNam (a) maunji prAvepAmA bRhatA mAdayanti pravA tejA hariNe vavRtAnA: | somasyeva maujavatasya bhaksho vibhIdako jAgRvirmahyamacchAn || (b) ajina RRk-sAmAbhyAm-abhihitau gAvau te sAma nAvita: | Srotram te cakre AstAm divi panthAS carAcara: || (c) daNDa esha ksheti rathavIthir maghavA gomatIranu ||