வெள்ளி, 26 அக்டோபர், 2012

M.G.ராமச்சந்திரன் ( M.G.R )

ராதே கிருஷ்ணா 26-10-2012

M.G.ராமச்சந்திரன் ( M.G.R )



M. G. Ramachandran



Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known by his initials MGR, was an Indian film actordirectorproducer, and politician who also served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu successively for three terms.
In his youth, MGR and his elder brother, M. G. Chakrapani became members of a drama troupe to support their family. Influenced by Gandhian ideals, MGR joined the Indian National Congress. After a few years of acting in plays, he made his film debut in the 1936 filmSathi Leelavathi in a supporting role. In the late 1940s he graduated to leading roles and for the next three decades dominated theTamil film industry.[1] He became a member of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and rose rapidly through its ranks. He successfully used his popularity as a film hero to build a large political base. In 1972, he left the DMK to form his own party the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK). In 1977 he became the chief minister of Tamil Nadu - the first film actor in India to become thechief minister of a state. He remained as chief minister till his death in 1987.
In Tamil Nadu, he has a reputation for philanthropism and is considered to be one of the greatest political leaders and actors of the state. He is idolized by his followers as Puratchi Thalaivar (lit. Revolutionary leader)[2][3][4][4] MGR was posthumously honoured with theBharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award.

M.G. Ramachandran
BornMaruthur Gopalan Ramachandran
January 17, 1917
KandySri Lanka
Died24 December 1987 (aged 70)
ChennaiIndia
Other namesM. G. R., Puratchi Thalaivar, Makkal Thilagam
OccupationActorPoliticianProducer
Years active1936-1986 (Actor)
1953-1987 (Politician)
ReligionHindu
Spouse(s)Thangamani (deceased)
Sathanandavathi (deceased)
V. N. Janaki (died in 1996)
AwardsBharat Ratna
in 1988 (Posthumous)














































Early life and background


MGR was born in Nawalapitiya near KandySri Lanka,[6] to Malayali immigrant parents, Melakkath Gopala Menon and Maruthur Satyabhama. His family was originally from VadavannurKollengodePalakkadKerala. Melakkath Gopala Menon had been excommunicated (bhrasht) during a Smarthavicharam in 1903, regarding an allegation that dealt with an illicit relationship with a widowed Brahmin woman;[7] and hence he left his family, and married Maruthur Satyabhama.[8][9]
MGR was a Hindu and a devotee of Murugan, as is the common practice for Hindus in Sri Lanka.[10] This was during his early days. Later, when he joined the DMK,a pro-rationalist party,he followed the rationalist ideology, though not appearing very aggressively atheistic.However,in later days after he founded his own party following his expulsion from the DMK, he seems to have shown some leaning towards religious faith. He had asked his followers to pray for the success of his AIADMK party.[11]
His followers even prayed for him when it was determined that he had a kidney illness.[12] After his demise, his wife opened up a temple in his name.
After his father's death, he joined a drama troupe called Original Boys. Later, he entered the world of cinema, becoming an actor, and later a director, producer, and editor. MGR married Bargavi also known as Thangamani who died early due to illness. He later married Sathanandavathi who also died soon due to Tuberculosis. M. G. R. married V. N. Janakia former Tamil film actress as his third wife after the death of his second wife. Janaki divorced her husband Ganapati Bhat, to marry MGR.

Acting career

He made his film debut in 1935, in the film Sathi Leelavathi,[13] directed by Ellis Dungan, an American born film director.[14] Generally starring in romance or action films, MGR got his big breakthrough in the 1947 film Manthiri Kumari, written by M. Karunanidhi. Soon he rose to superstardom in the 1954 blockbuster Malaikallan. He acted as hero in the Tamil film industry's first ever colour movie, the 1955 blockbuster Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum. He rose to become the heart throb of millions of Indians with movies such as Anbe Vaa,Aayirathil OruvanMahadeviPanam PadaithavanUlagam Sutrum VaalibhanAdimai Penn, etc. He won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the film Rickshawkaran in 1972. His film Nadodi Mannan, released in 1958, was a Tamil version of the interpretation of the Prisoner of Zenda, was produced and directed by himself and released in 1956, ran to full houses. He began to act in many movies that appealed to the direct sentiments of the common man and the rich as well. His 1973 blockbuster Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan broke previous box office records. It was one of the few movies filmed abroad in those days. It was shot in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Japan. The DMK unsuccessfully tried to curtail that movie. His acting career ended in 1986 with his last movie, Madurai Meetta Sundara Pandian, which he acted when he was the Chief Minister of the state.





Political career


MGR was a member of the Congress Party till 1953 and he used to wear Khādī. In 1953 MGR joined the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK) with the help of M. Karunanidhi. He became a vocal Tamil and Dravidian nationalist and prominent member of the DMK ("Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam" aka Dravidian Progressive Federation). He added glamour to the Dravidian movement which was sweeping Tamil Nadu. He became a member of the state Legislative Council in 1962. He was first elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1967. After the death of his mentor, Annadurai, MGR became the treasurer of DMK in 1969 after Karunanidhi became the chief minister.
On 12 January 1967, he was shot in the neck by fellow actor M.R. Radha.Both had worked together in 25 films together.When MGR was acting in the film Kaavalkaran in 1967 opposite J. Jayalalithaa this incident happened. Petralthaan Pillaya was the last movie of MGR-MR Radha together, shooting which ended just few days before MGR was shot at.The bullet was permanently lodged in his neck and his voice damaged. Within hours of the shooting, some 50,000 fans had gathered at the hospital where MGR had been taken. People cried in the streets. For six weeks, he lay in the hospital as fans awaited each report of his health. He was visited by a steady stream of commoners and luminaries of film industry, polity and bureaucracy.From his hospital bed, he conducted his campaign for Madras Legislative Assembly. He won twice the number of votes polled by his Congress rival and the largest vote polled by any candidate for the Assembly.[16]

MGR at a function in January (1968)
In 1972, DMK leader Karunanithi started to project his first son M.K.Muthu in a big way in film industry and also in politics. Understanding the tactics played by Karunanithi to corner him, MGR started to claim that corruption had grown within the party after the demise of Annadurai and in a public meeting asked for the financial details of the party to be publicised which enraged the leadership of DMK. Consequently, as expected, MGR was expelled from the party, and floated a new party named Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK), later renamed All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), the only powerful opponent of the DMK. He mobilised the period between 1972-1977 to spread and preach his party ambition with films like Netru Indru Naalai(1974), Idhayakani(1975), Indru Pol Endrum Vazhga (1977) etc. He became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on the 30th of July 1977, remaining in office till his death in 1987. In 1979, members of his party Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, became the first non-Congress politicians from Tamil Nadu to be ministers in the Union Cabinet. The AIADMK won every state assembly election as long as MGR was alive. Although Anna Durai as well as Karunanidhi had acted in stage plays in trivial roles, in their younger days, before becoming chief minister, MGR was the first popular film actor to be a Chief Minister in India.Though the Congress won by a small margin of votes with the DMK in the 1980 parliamentary elections, the AIADMK under MGR won the state elections the same year.This made the Congress to ally with the AIADMK in the 1984 elections. MGR ended his acting career in 1986. 1 Once he became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, he placed great emphasis on social development, especially education. One of his most successful policies was the conversion of the "Midday Meal Scheme" introduced by the popular Congress Chief Minister and kingmaker K Kamaraj, which already was encouraging underprivileged children to attend school, into "MGR's Nutritious Meal Scheme" in the Government-run and aided schools in Tamil Nadu by addingsaththurundai -a nutritious sugary flour dumpling. This scheme was at a cost of Rs.100 crore and was imposed in 1982. A little more than 120000 children of the state were benefited. He also introduced Women's Special buses. He introduced liquor ban in the state and preservation of old temples and historical monuments, ultimately increasing the state's tourist income. He set up a free school for the Cinema Technicians children in Kodambakkam called MGR Primary & Higher Secondary School which provided Free Mid-Day meals in the 1950s. He led the ADMK to victory in the 1984 assembly elections despite not taking part in the campaigning. At that time he was undergoing medical treatment in America and his images were broadcast in Tamil Nadu through cinema halls. This was an effective campaign tactic and ADMK won the elections claiming around 56% of assembly seats, indicating the depth of his popular support. He won his seat in a double landslide victory in 1984. He still holds the record of being the chief minister with the highest consistent longevity of more than a decade.

                              


                                  

Member of Legislative Assembly

YearElected/ReelectedPlaceParty
1967ElectedSt. Thomas MountDMK
1971ReelectedSt. Thomas MountDMK
1977ElectedAruppukottaiADMK
1980ElectedMadurai WestADMK
1984ElectedAndipattiADMK



Chief Minister




Awards





Philanthropy

He personally offered relief in disasters and calamities like fire, flood, drought, and cyclones. He was the first donor during the war with China in 1962, donating Rs. 75,000 to the war fund. He was the founder and editor of Thai weekly magazine and Anna daily newspaper in Tamil. He was the owner of Sathya Studios and Emgeeyar Pictures (willed to charity) which produced many of the films he acted in. He had gifted a golden sword weighing half a Kilogram to Mookambika temple in KollurUdupi district.



Illness and Death

In October 1984, MGR was diagnosed with kidney failure, which was further complicated by diabetes, a mild heart attack and a massive stroke. He was rushed to the Downstate Medical Center, BrooklynUnited States for treatment, undergoing a kidney transplant. The next 3 years were spent in frequent trips to the USA for treatment. MGR never fully recovered from his illness and died on December 24, 1987 after his prolonged illness. He was 70. His death sparked off a frenzy of looting and rioting all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Shops, movie theatres, buses and other public and private property became the target of violence let loose all over the state. The police had to resort issuing shoot-at-sight orders. Tamilians from Bangalore rushed to Madras in trains to see the mortal remains of MGR. Govt had announced free train facility for this visit. The violence during the funeral alone left 29 people dead and 47 police personnel badly wounded. [20],[21] This state of affairs continued for almost a month all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Around one million[22] people followed his remains, around 30 followers committed suicide and people had their heads tonsured. After his death, his political party, the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, split between his wife Janaki Ramachandran andJ. Jayalalithaa; they later merged in 1988. In 1989 Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired was established in the erstwhile Residence MGR Gardens, Ramapuram, in accordance with his will dated January 17, 1986. His official residence at 27, Arcot Street, T.Nagar is now MGR Memorial House and is open for public viewing. His film studio, Sathya Studios has been converted into a women's college.





Filmography


M. G. Ramachandran filmography



The following is a complete list of all the films M. G. Ramachandran has acted in:
No.YearFilmStudioco-star & Notes
11936Sathi LeelavathiManorama Films
21936Iru SahodarargalParameswari Sound Pictures
31938DakshayagnamMetropolitan Pictures
41938Veera JagathisV. S. Talkies
51939Maya MachindraMetropolitan Pictures
61939PrahalathaSalem Sankar Films
71941Ashok KumarMurugan Talkies Film Company
81941Vedavathi or
Seetha Jananam
Shyamala Pictures
91942Tamizhariyum PerumalUma Pictures
101943Dhaasippen or
Jothi Malar
Puvaneswari Pictures
111943HarichandraSri Rajarajeswari Film Company
121945MeeraChandraprabha Cinetone
131945SaalivaahananBhaskar Pictures
141946Sri MuruganJupiter
151947PaithiyakaaranN. S. K. Films
161947RajakumaariJupiter
171948AbhimanyuJupiter
181948MohiniJupiterV. N. Janaki
191948Raja MukthiNarendra Pictures
201949RathnakumarMurugan Talkies Film Company
211950Manthiri KumariModern Theatres
221950Marudhanaattu IlavarasiG.Govindan and Co.V. N. Janaki
231951MarmayogiJupiterAnjali Devi
241951Ekta RajaHindi dubbed version of Marmayogi
251951SarvadhigariModern TheatresAnjali Devi
261951SarvadhigariModern TheatresTelugu dubbed version of Sarvadhigari
271952Andhaman KaidhiRadhakrishna Films
281952En ThangaiAsoka Pictures
291952KumaariR.Padmanabhan-Rajeswari
301953JenovaChandra Pictures
311953JenovaMalayalam dubbed version of Jenova
321953NaamJupiter-Mekala
331953PanakkaariUma Pictures
341954KoondukkiliR.R.PicturesOnly film starred with Sivaji Ganesan
351954MalaikkallanPakshiraja StudiosP. Bhanumathi
M.G. Ramachandran's first industrial record, released in six languages
361955Gul-E-BagaavaliR.R.PicturesT. R. RajakumariG. Varalakshmi & Rajasulochana
371956Alibabavum Narpadhu ThirudargalumModern TheatresP. Bhanumathi
First Tamil colour film
381956Madhurai VeeranKrishna PicturesP. Bhanumathi & Padmini
391956Thaaikkuppin ThaaramDevar FilmsP. Bhanumathi
401957Chakravarthi ThirumagalUma PicturesAnjali Devi & S. Varalakshmi
411957MahadheviSri Ganesh MovietoneK. Savithri
421957Pudhumai PithanSivakami PicturesB. S. Saroja & T. R. Rajakumari
431957Raja RajanNeela ProductionsPadmini & Lalitha
441958Nadodi MannanEm.Gee.Yar. PicturesP. BhanumathiM. N. Rajam & B. Saroja Devi
Also producer and director
M.G. Ramachandran's second industrial record, was an adaptation of The Prisoner of Zenda
451959Thaai Magalukku Kattiya ThaaliKalpana Kala MandirJamuna
Only film starred with
461960Baghdad ThirudanSouthern MoviesVyjayanthimala
Only film starred with
471960Mannadhi MannanNatesh Art PicturesAnjali Devi & Padmini
481960Raja DesinguKrishna PicturesP. Bhanumathi
491961ArasilangkumariJupiterRajasulochana & Padmini
501961Nallavan VazhvanArasu PicturesRajasulochana
511961Sabaash MapillaiRagavan ProductionsMalini
521961Thaai Sollai ThattadheDevar FilmsB. Saroja Devi
531961ThirudadheA.L.S.B. Saroja Devi
541962Kudumba ThalaivanDevar Films
551962MaadappuraP.V.N. ProductionsB. Saroja Devi & Vasanthi
561962PaasamR.R. PicturesB. Saroja Devi
571962Raani SamyukthaSaraswathy PicturesPadmini
581962Thaayai Kaatha ThanayanDevar FilmsB. Saroja Devi
591962VikramaadhithanBharat ProductionsPadmini
601963Anandha JodhiHariharan Films (P.S.V.)Devika
Only film starred with
611963Dharmam Thalai KaakkumDevar FilmsB. Saroja Devi
621963Kalai ArasiSarodi BrothersP. Bhanumathi
First Science Fiction film of Indian Cinemas
631963Kaanji ThalaivanMekala PicturesP. Bhanumathi
641963Koduthu VaithavalE.V.R.PicturesE. V. Saroja
651963Needhikkuppin PaasamDevar Films
661963PanathottamSaravana Films
671963ParisuGowri PicturesK. Savithri
681963Periya Idathu PenR.R. PicturesB. Saroja Devi
691964Dheiva ThaaiSathya MoviesB. Saroja Devi
701964En KadamaiNatesh Art Pictures
711964PadagottiSaravana FilmsB. Saroja Devi
721964Panakkara KudumbamR.R. PicturesRemade in Hindi in 1970 as Humjoli
731964Thaayin MadiyilAnnai Films
741964ThozhilaliDevar FilmsK. R. Vijaya & Rathna
751964VettaikkaaranDevar FilmsK. Savithri
761964Aasai MugamMohan Productions
771965Aayirathil OruvanPadmini PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
781965Enga Veettu PillaiVijaya Combines ProductionsB. Saroja Devi & Rathna
M.G. Ramachandran's third industrial record
791965Kalangarai VilakkamSaravana FilmsB. Saroja Devi
801965Kanni ThaaiDevar Films
811965Panam PadaithavanR.R. PicturesSowcar Janaki & K. R. Vijaya
821965ThazhampooSri Bala Murugan FilmsK. R. Vijaya
831966Anbe VaaAVM ProductionsB. Saroja Devi
841966Naan AanaiyittalSathya Movies
851966MuharasiDevar Films
861966Nadodi (1966 film)Padmini PicturesB. Saroja Devi & Bharathi
871966ChandhrodhayamSaravana FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
881966Parakkum PaavaiR.R. PicturesB. Saroja Devi & Kanchana
891966Petraalthaan PillaiyaSri Muthukumaran Pictures
901966Thaali BhagyamVaralakshmy PicturesB. Saroja Devi
911966ThanippiraviDevar FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
921967Arasa kattalaiSatyaraja PicturesB. Saroja Devi & J. Jayalalitha
931967Kaavalkaaran (1967 film)Sathya MoviesJ. Jayalalitha
941967Thaaiku ThalaimaganDevar Films
951967VivasayeeDevar FilmsK. R. Vijaya
961968Ragasiya Police 115Padmini PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
971968Thaer ThiruvizhaDevar FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
981968Kudiyirundha KoyilSaravana ScreensJ. Jayalalitha
991968Kannan En KadhalanSathya MoviesJ. Jayalalitha
1001968Oli VilakkuGemini StudiosJ. Jayalalitha
1011968KanavanValli FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
1021968Pudhiya BoomiJ.R. MoviesJ. Jayalalitha
1031968Kadhal VaaganamDevar FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
1041969Adimai PennEm.Gee.Yar. PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
M.G. Ramachandran's fourth industrial record
1051969Nam NaaduVijaya InternationalJ. Jayalalitha
Remade in 1972 in Hindi as Apna Desh
1061970Maattukaara VelanJayanthi FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
1071970En AnnanVenus PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
1081970ThalaivanThomas Pictures
1091970Thedi Vandha MappillaiPadmini PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
1101970Engal ThangamMekala PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
1111971KumarikkottamKay Cey FilmsJ. Jayalalitha
1121971RickshawkaranSathya MoviesManjula Vijayakumar
Winner: National Film Award for Best Actor
1131971Neerum NeruppumNew Mani J.Cine ProductionsJ. Jayalalitha
Remade in 1972 in Hindi as Gora Aur Kala
1141971Oru Thaai MakkalNanjil Productions
1151972Sange MuzhanguDevar Films
1161972Nalla NeramJeyanthi FilmsK. R. Vijaya
Remake of 1971 Hindi film Haathi Mere Saathi
1171972Raman Thediya Seethai (1972 film)Ramachandra ProductionsJ. Jayalalitha
1181972Annamitta KaiRamachandra Productions
1191972Naan Yen PirandhenKamatchi AgenciesK. R. Vijaya & Kanchana
Remake of 1969 Hindi Film Jeene Ki Raah
1201972Idhaya VeenaiUthayam Productions
1211973Ulagam Sutrum ValibanEm.Gee.Yar. PicturesAlso director
1221973Pattikaattu PonnaiyaVasanth PicturesJ. Jayalalitha
1231974Netru Indru Naalai (1974 film)Amalraj Films
1241974Urimai KuralChitrayuka
1251974Sirithu Vazha VendumUthayam ProductionsRemake of Hindi Film Zanjeer
1261974Ninaithadhai MudippavanOriental PicturesRemake of Hindi Film Sachaa Jhutha
1271975Naalai NamadheGajendra FilmsLatha
Remake of 1973 Hindi Film Yaadon Ki Baaraat
1281975Pallandu VazhgaUthayam ProductionsRemake of 1952 Hindi film Do Aankhen Barah Haath
1291975IdhayakkaniSathya Movies
1301976Needhikku ThalaivananguSri Umaiyambikai Productions
1311976Uzhaikkum KarangalKay Cey FilmsLatha
1321976Oorukku UzhaippavanVenus PicturesRemake of 1974 Hindi Film Humshakal
1331977Indru Pol Endrum VaazhgaSubbu ProductionsRadha Saluja
1341977NavarathinamC.N.V. Movies
1351977Meenava NanbanMuthu EnterpriseLatha
1361978Madhuraiyai Meetta Sundharapandiyan
1371989Avasara Police 100Archive footage of unfinished MGR film is used in the film.
1381981Nallathai Naadu KekumArchive footage of unfinished MGR film is used in the film.




As producer & director

YearFilmRoleNotes
1958Nadodi MannanMGR's First film as Director,
1973Ulagam Sutrum ValibanMGR's Second film as Director,
1977Madhurai Meetha SundharapandianMGR's Third film as Director,
























































































































































































































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